These protests have been marked by violence, so being a conscientious individual who's an undergraduate neurobiology student with some knowledge of human anatomy and who's had training in first aid, here's a small compendium of what to do. EDIT: If moving the victim is possible, move them to one of the embassies here if nearby: http://tinyurl.com/nwrvsd TOC: 1. Establishing Condition of Victim 2. CPR 3. Signs of Shock 4. Signs of Brain Injury 5. First Aid at Protests 1. Establishing Condition of Victim First of all, ENSURE YOUR OWN SAFETY BEFORE COMMENCING TREATMENT. If you can/must move the injured person, do so safely; however, if you do not have to move them, do not move them. There are a few important things you want to look for: brain injury/concussion, shock, responsiveness, breathing and heartbeat. Information on some of these is given in the next few sections. A good resource for further information on this as applied to protests is gr88.tumblr.com and general information is available from the American Red Cross website. 2. CPR (with/without AED) The American Red Cross Heartsaver CPR rule is 30/2: 30 compressions to 2 breaths. Compressions are more important than breaths - if you cannot perform breaths, perform compressions. Here are some basic steps to follow. - Before doing CPR, establish the person's condition by checking responsiveness - ask firmly and loudly if they are okay and give them a firm poke or a shake in an unaffected region of their body. If they are not responding, proceed to step 2. - Remember 'ABC': Airway, Breathing, Circulation. Lean your head down next to their head and watch for chest rise/fall. If safe, take pulse. - If no response, start CPR. Use the heels of your palm, one hand clasped over the other, and compress the sternum (a bit of popping and clicking is okay) at a rate of about 100 compressions per minute. Pinch nose shut and tilt head back when administering breaths. A good way to keep tempo is to do compressions to the beat of 'Another One Bites the Dust' by Queen, if you are familiar with the song. Search for it on Youtube if you want to find a video. - Keep a ratio of 30 compressions to 2 breaths. A note on AEDs: If you have an AED available, use it. There will be directions on the inside of the device as to how to use it. However, if there are no directions, this is what to do: - Open the victim's shirt and place the pads as indicated - usually one on the victim's right shoulder and one on the victim's left side, so that there is a straight line passing through the heart to each pad. If you have to, shave body hair off these points. Press the button on the device to start it. There will be directions as to when to administer shocks. Keep away from the person being shocked when the device is administering a shock. Once shock is administered, resume compressions and breaths until AED says it is prepared to administer another shock. 3. Signs of Shock / Caring for a Victim Who Is In Shock Shock is the body's response when it has undergone significant trauma such as a broken bone. From gr88.tumblr.com, a guide on shock: - Fainting or faintness - Pale or bluish skin, cold to the touch - Moist or clammy skin - Dilated pupils, dull eyes - Weakness - Shallow, labored, or irregular breathing - Rapid pulse (over 100bpm) - Nausea, vomiting, anxiety, thirst - Unresponsiveness - Sunken eyes or vacant expression Treating shock: - For minor shock, have the victim sit down and put their head between their knees. - Have the victim lie down. Keep him comfortable, and keep the body temperature normal. If it is hot, provide shade; if it is cold, put blankets over the victim. - Do not give the victim fluid to drink if he or she is unconscious or semiconscious, vomits or may vomit. - Choose the best position for the victim according to the nature of the injury. Positioning the victim: Standard position for giving care for shock: feet up, injury elevated. Warning: Do not elevate the injury if you think a bone may be broken. Do not elevate any unsplinted fracture. The victim should be flat on the back if you think a bone may be broken and it is not splinted, if elevation is painful, or if you are unsure about which position is correct. If the victim has a head wound or is having trouble breathing, elevate the head and shoulders. Do not elevate the feet and the head at the same time. A victim who is bleeding from the mouth, vomiting, or may vomit should lie on one side, so fluid will drain from the mouth. 4. Signs of Brain Injury From the ADAM online medical encyclopedia. Get medical help immediately if the person: * Becomes unusually drowsy * Develops a severe headache or stiff neck * Vomits more than once * Loses consciousness (even if brief) * Behaves abnormally For a moderate to severe head injury, take the following steps: 1. Obtain more trained medical help if available. 2. Check the person's airway, breathing, and circulation. If necessary, begin rescue breathing and CPR. 3. If the person's breathing and heart rate are normal but the person is unconscious, treat as if there is a spinal injury. Stabilize the head and neck by placing your hands on both sides of the person's head, keeping the head in line with the spine and preventing movement. Wait for medical help. 4. Stop any bleeding by firmly pressing a clean cloth on the wound. If the injury is serious, be careful not to move the person's head. If blood soaks through the cloth, DO NOT remove it. Place another cloth over the first one. 5. If you suspect a skull fracture, DO NOT apply direct pressure to the bleeding site, and DO NOT remove any debris from the wound. Cover the wound with sterile gauze dressing. 6. If the person is vomiting, roll the head, neck, and body as one unit to prevent choking. This still protects the spine, which you must always assume is injured in the case of a head injury. (Children often vomit ONCE after a head injury. This may not be a problem, but call a doctor for further guidance.) 7. Apply ice packs to swollen areas. For a mild head injury, no specific treatment may be needed. However, closely watch the person for any concerning symptoms over the next 24 hours. The symptoms of a serious head injury can be delayed. While the person is sleeping, wake him or her every 2 to 3 hours and ask simple questions to check alertness, such as "What is your name?" Over-the-counter pain medicine (like acetaminophen or ibuprofen) may be used for a mild headache. DO NOT take aspirin, because it can increase the risk of bleeding. DO NOT * DO NOT wash a head wound that is deep or bleeding a lot. * DO NOT remove any object sticking out of a wound. * DO NOT move the person unless absolutely necessary. * DO NOT shake the person if he or she seems dazed. * DO NOT drink alcohol within 48 hours of a serious head injury. Call more trained medical help if: * There is severe head or facial bleeding. * The person is confused, drowsy, lethargic, or unconscious. * The person stops breathing. * You suspect a serious head or neck injury or the person develops any symptoms of a serious head injury. 5. First Aid at Protests PREVENTION IS THE BEST REMEDY FOR INJURY. Carry whatever supplies you need to prevent injury. Most first aid guidelines can be adapted for use at protests; there are numerous webpages on how to treat protest-specific injuries. Make sure a safe space is cleared around the victim; do not let anyone, not even protesters, near the person being treated. The victim's safety and your safety is paramount. If tear gas is used, keep a handkerchief soaked in apple cider vinegar or lime juice on hand for yourself and the victim. Carry whatever documentation you have to have. Smuggle extra doses of drugs if needed.