Historical Research On The War Between The States (contains graphic images)

Discussion in 'General Discussion' started by Johnny_Reb_1865, Jul 26, 2014.

  1. Ogsonofgroo Member



    So, do you go and metal-detect for relics of this particular conflict? that'd be cool YT stuff... oh wait, there's 1,000's already.

    I guess my sense of wonder remains as to why you would persist at this site, haz you knot read WWP? It seems you have a point/project, and you are your own favorite fan an' all... shit, wwp needs a 'hobby' thread.
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  2. Why do you persist?
  3. Ogsonofgroo Member

    Probably for similar reasons that you do.
  4. Ogsonofgroo Member

    Different goals.

    You don't really seem to have one, but some of the history is interesting. I hope, at the very least that you're reading around the site and are understanding WWP a bit more.

    I persist because I live in a land of beavers that do not give a fuck. And the many other people from many other countries do not give a shit either.


    Incident II *shiver*

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  5. Anonymous Member

    Man, you are Canadian? You guys are weird and you pronounce the word "out", "oot". Also, I herd that 80s didn't come to Canada till like '93. Or that there's kids playing hockey on the back of Canadian 5$? It's like you want us to make fun of you. And, I herd, you are afraid of the dark.
  6. Then you answered your own question.

    I posted this thread in the hopes that those willing to appreciate the lesson taught from history and learn to never let the unpleasantness of the past happen again.

    My goal is to spread knowledge and understanding so that people aren't ignorant of the lesson our past.

    History is not just the documentation of past events laid out in chronological order.

    It's a story of how we got to where we are today.

    Another reason I posted this thread was because I also wanted to present a narrative that most tend to neglect simply because that narrative belongs to the losing side.

    I believe that Winston Churchill said it best, "the victor writes history."

    Wouldn't you agree?

    And what parts do you find interesting?
  7. WWP has an American State of Canada forum, maybe you should go there and try to liven it up:
  8. TrevAnon Member

    Now I understand why COS has to do all these new releases for LRH stuff!! :p
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  9. It's a weird old man who is an alcoholic.
    Not sure who it is that always gives his posts upvotes, because his gibberish does not contribute anything. Sad in a dumb sad way.
    This message by pidgeon has been hidden due to negative ratings. (Show message)
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  10. Anonymous Member

    Sometimes I do, when I agree with him or he made me laugh.
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  11. Ogsonofgroo Member

    Well that's a first, lmfao, not.. Thanks OSA-spawn, ya made my day, in fact, I'm going to hoist a drink in your honour! Cheers! (and fwiw I can take it or leave it, meh) As for contributing, hmmmm, and you has done what lately? Kinda moot as you sound like a rebel without a clue, do carry on!
    If nothing else I am consistent about my loathing of everything Hubbard, and it'd take a far better boy-toy than you to deter me from my appointed rounds, enjoy your continued fail of life kiddo!


    Oh, by the way, thanks AB, I do enjoy making people laugh, gets so frikken boring around here without some nut-bar like me to jingle-the-bells, piss-off-trolls, and ruffle feathers, that the 'Doxing-Queens' keep trying to fuck people up and afraid people away from here, um, just re-affirms that there are lots of people doing it right.

    Fuck you dead LRonHubbard! And a bigger Fuck You! to David Miscavige and all the horrors he hides inside his royal scam, his henchmen and his ass-kissers, his bone-filled closets, the whole cult of CoS and its tentacles, the ruined people.
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  12. White Tara Global Moderator

    I upvoted The ogs^
    /derail ;)
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  13. Anonymous Member


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  14. Ogsonofgroo Member

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  15. If you have nothing to contribute then don't post.
  16. White Tara Global Moderator

  17. Although Wesley Norris claimed that he and others were whipped at the behest of Lee, there is no proof of this as far as I know. Yes, Norris and others escaped; yes, they were captured; yes, they were returned to Lee; apparently, Lee called in an official to take them to jail; yes, Lee had them all "shipped South" (All of this is adequately covered in Mrs. Pryor's book--Reading the Man). However other than Norris' testimony, I have found no proof of any whipping at the behest of Lee. Since the only "proof" that Lee had Norris and others whipped comes from the mouth of Norris himself, IMO even that must now be called into question. At the same time that the Norris story came out, his family was trying to "get gain" and I believe that the Norris story was used to arouse public sentiment to help his family to get that "gain" by libeling Lee. If you have proof to the contrary, please present it and we will all be the wiser. Thanks, Tom Forehand, Jr.
  18. The Battle of Fort Pillow(April 12, 1864)
    In April 1864, the Union garrison at Fort Pillow, a Confederate-built earthen fortification and a Union-built inner redoubt, overlooking the Mississippi River about forty river miles above Memphis, comprised 295 white Tennessee troops and 262 U.S. Colored Troops, all under the command of Maj. Lionel F. Booth. Confederate Maj. Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest attacked the fort on April 12 with a cavalry division of approximately 2,500 men. Forrest seized the older outworks, with high knolls commanding the Union position, to surround Booth's force. Rugged terrain prevented the gunboat New Era from providing effective fire support for the Federals. The garrison was unable to depress its artillery enough to cover the approaches to the fort. To make matters worse, Rebel sharpshooters, on the surrounding knolls, began wounding and killing the Federals, including Booth, who was killed. Maj. William F. Bradford then took over command of the garrison. The Confederates launched a determined attack at 11:00 am, occupying more strategic locations around the fort, and Forrest demanded unconditional surrender. Bradford asked for an hour for consultation and Forrest granted twenty minutes. Bradford refused surrender and the Confederates renewed the attack, soon overran the fort, and drove the Federals down the river's bluff into a deadly crossfire. Casualties were high and only sixty-two of the U.S. Colored Troops survived the fight. Many accused the Confederates of perpetrating a massacre of the black troops, and that controversy continues today. The Confederates evacuated Fort Pillow that evening so they gained little from the attack except to temporarily disrupt Union operations. The Fort Pillow Massacre became a Union rallying cry and cemented resolve to see the war through to its conclusion.

    Report of Capt. William T. Smith, Sixth U.S. Colored Heavy Artillery, of the capture of Fort Pillow.
    MARCH 16-APRIL 14, 1864.--Forrest's Expedition into West Tennessee and Kentucky.

    O.R.-- SERIES I--VOLUME XXXII/1 [S# 57]

    April, 15, 1864.

    Lieut. GEORGE MASON,
    Acting Assistant Adjutant-General.

    SIR: I have the honor to make the following statement in regard to the battle of Fort Pillow. I was not in the battle, but arrived there after the fort was captured, and by conversation with officers that were engaged in the same and prisoners I learned the following particulars:
    On the morning of the 12th of April, at daybreak, the pickets were attacked, and without resistance, which should have been made, nastily returned to the fort. Major Booth, of the Sixth U.S. Heavy Artillery (colored), was in command. He had made all disposition that was in his power with the small force that was under his command, and when the enemy charged his rifle-pits they were repulsed, and every time they met with the same; and while Major Booth was passing among his men and cheering the same to fight he was struck in the head by a bullet and killed, after which the command retired inside of the fort, when the enemy sent in a demand for the surrender of the fort immediately, which demand was refused; and while consulting under the flag of truce the enemy advanced his lines by crawling up on our breast-works. After the refusal they charged our works, and again were repulsed. They then sent in another demand for surrender, which again was refused. They then stormed the fort, and succeeded by their treachery in entering the same, and they then commenced an indiscriminate slaughter of the command. The fort never was surrendered. I passed over the field of battle under the flag of truce (which was out to bury our dead), and I there saw men who were shot after they had thrown down their arms and were in hiding-places that they had selected after the fort was taken. A captain of one of the gun-boats informed me that the rebel General Chalmers told him they did not intend to show any mercy to the garrison of Fort Pillow when they attacked the same. When I went over the field I was under the escort of Colonel Greer, who informed me that it was the hardest battle that he was ever in--the most strongly contested. The appearance of a great many of the dead men's bodies showed to me conclusively that they were murdered.
    The following is a list of the killed and wounded, as I have learned from reports: Major Booth, Sixth U.S. Heavy Artillery (colored), killed; Major Bradford, Thirteenth Tennessee Cavalry, reported murdered; Captain Bradford, Thirteenth Tennessee Cavalry, killed; Captain Carson, Sixth U.S., killed; Lieut. John D. Hill, Sixth U. S., killed; Lieut. P. Bischoff, Sixth U.S., killed; First Sergeant Weaver, Company C, Sixth U. S., killed: Sergeant-Major Hennessey, Sixth U.S., murdered under flag of truce; Capt. Charles J. Epeneter, wounded and prisoner; Lieut. Thomas W. McClure, wounded and prisoner; Lieutenant Lippett, wounded and in our hands: Sergt. Melville Jenks, reported killed.

    I am, very respectfully,
    W. T. SMITH,
    Captain Company C, Sixth U. S. Heavy Artillery


    Report of Maj. Gen. Nathan B. Forrest, C. S. Army, commanding Cavalry, of the Capture of Fort Pillow
    MARCH 16-APRIL 14, 1864.--Forrest's Expedition into West Tennessee and Kentucky.
    O.R.-- SERIES I--VOLUME XXXII/1 [S# 57]

    Jackson, Tenn., April 26, 1864.

    Lieut. Col. THOMAS M. JACK,
    Assistant Adjutant-General.
    COLONEL: I have the honor respectfully to forward you the following report of my engagement with the enemy on the 12th instant at Fort Pillow:
    My command consisted of McCulloch's brigade, of Chalmers' division, and Bell's brigade, of Buford's division, both placed for the expedition under the command of Brig. Gen. James R. Chalmers, who, by a forced march, drove in the enemy's pickets, gained possession of the outer works, and by the time I reached the field, at 10 a.m., had forced the enemy to their main fortifications, situated on the bluff or bank of the Mississippi River at the mouth of Coal Creek. The fort is an earth-work, crescent shaped, is 8 feet in height and 4 feet across the top, surrounded by a ditch 6 feet deep and 12 feet in width, walls sloping to the ditch but perpendicular inside. It was garrisoned by 700 troops with six pieces of field artillery. A deep ravine surrounds the fort, and from the fort to the ravine the ground descends rapidly. Assuming command, I ordered General Chalmers to advance his lines and gain position on the slope, where our men would be perfectly protected from the heavy fire of artillery and musketry, as the enemy could not depress their pieces so as to rake the slopes, nor could they fire on them with small-arms except by mounting the breast-works and exposing themselves to the fire of our sharpshooters, who, under cover of stumps and logs, forced them to keep down inside the works. After several hours' hard fighting the desired position was gained, not, however, without considerable loss. Our main line was now within an average distance of 100 yards from the fort, and extended from Coal Creek, on the right, to the bluff, or bank, of the Mississippi River on the left.
    During the entire morning the gun-boat kept up a continued fire in all directions, but without effect, and being confident of my ability, to take the fort by assault, and desiring to prevent further loss of life, I sent, under flag of truce, a demand for the unconditional surrender of the garrison, a copy of which demand is hereto appended, marked No. 1, to which I received a reply, marked No. 2. The gun-boat had ceased firing, but the smoke of three other boats ascending the river was in view, the foremost boat apparently crowded with troops, and believing the request for an hour was to gain time for re-enforcements to arrive, and that the desire to consult the officers of the gun-boat was a pretext by which they desired improperly to communicate with her, I at once sent this reply, copy of which is numbered 3, directing Captain Goodman, assistant adju-tant-general of Brigadier-General Chalmers, who bore the flag, to remain until he received a reply or until the expiration of the time proposed.
    My dispositions had all been made, and my forces were in a position that would enable me to take the fort with less loss than to have withdrawn under fire, and it seemed to me so perfectly apparent to the garrison that such was the case, that I deemed their [capture] without further bloodshed a certainty. After some little delay, seeing a message delivered to Captain Goodman, I rode up myself to where the notes were received and delivered. The answer was handed me, written in pencil on a slip of paper, without envelope, and was, as well as I remember, in these words: "Negotiations will not attain the desired object." As the officers who were in charge of the Federal flag of truce had expressed a doubt as to my presence, and had pronounced the demand a trick, I handed them back the note saying: "I am General Forrest; go back and say to Major Booth that I demand an answer in plain, unmistakable English. Will he fight or surrender ?" Returning to my original position, before the expiration of twenty minutes I received a reply, copy of which is marked No. 4.
    While these negotiations were pending the steamers from below were rapidly approaching the fort. The foremost was the Olive Branch, whose position and movements indicated her intention to land. A few shots fired into her caused her to leave the shore and make for the opposite. One other boat passed up on the far side of the river, the third one turned back.
    The time having expired, I directed Brigadier-General Chalmers to prepare for the assault. Bell's brigade occupied the right, with his extreme right resting on Coal Creek. McCulloch's brigade occupied the left, extending from the center to the river. Three companies of his left regiment were placed in an old rifle-pit on the left and almost in the rear of the fort, which had evidently been thrown up for the protection of sharpshooters or riflemen in supporting the water batteries below. On the right a portion of Barteau's regiment, of Bell's brigade, was also under the bluff and in rear of the fort. I dispatched staff officers to Colonels Bell and McCulloch, commanding brigades, to say to them that I should watch with interest the conduct of the troops; that Missourians, Mississippians, and Tennesseeans surrounded the works, and I desired to see who would first scale the fort. Fearing the gun-boats and transports might attempt a landing, I directed my aide-de-camp, Capt. Charles W. Anderson, to assume command of the three companies on the left and rear of the fort and hold the position against anything that might come by land or water, but to take no part in the assault on the fort. Everything being ready, the bugle sounded the charge, which was made with a yell, and the works carried without a perceptible halt in any part of the line. As our troops mounted and poured into the fortification the enemy retreated toward the river, arms in hand and firing back, and their colors flying, no doubt expecting the gun-boat to shell us away from the bluff and protect them until they could be taken off or re-en-forced. As they descended the bank an enfilading and deadly fire was poured into them by the troops under Captain Anderson, on the left, and Barteau's detachment on the right. Until this fire was opened upon them, at a distance varying from 30 to 100 yards, they were evidently ignorant of any force having gained their rear. The regiment who had stormed and carried the fort also poured a destructive fire into the rear of the retreating and now panic-stricken and almost decimated garrison. Fortunately for those of the enemy who survived this short but desperate struggle, some of our men cut the halyards, and the United States flag, floating from a tall mast in the center of the fort, came down. The forces stationed in the rear of the fort could see the flag, but were too far under the bluff to see the fort, and when the flag descended they ceased firing. But for this, so near were they to the enemy that few, if any, would have survived unhurt another volley. As it was, many rushed into the river and were drowned, and the actual loss of life will perhaps never be known, as there were quite a number of refugee citizens in the fort, many of whom were drowned and several killed in the retreat from the fort. In less than twenty minutes from the time the bugles sounded the charge firing had ceased and the work was done. One of the Parrott guns was turned on the gun-boat. She steamed off without replying. She had, as I afterward understood, expended all her ammunition, and was therefore powerless in affording the Federal garrison the aid and protection they doubtless expected of her when they retreated toward the river. Details were made, consisting of the captured Federals and negroes, in charge of their own officers, to collect together and bury the dead, which work continued until dark.
    I also directed Captain Anderson to procure a skiff and take with him Captain Young, a captured Federal officer, and deliver to Captain Marshall, of the gun-boat, the message, copy of which is appended and numbered 5. All the boats and skiffs having been taken off by citizens escaping from the fort during the engagement, the message could not be delivered, although every effort was made to induce Captain Marshall to send his boat ashore by raising a white flag, with which Captain Young walked up and down the river in vain signaling her to come in or send out a boat. She finally moved off and disappeared around the bend above the fort. General Chalmers withdrew his forces from the fort before dark and encamped a few miles east of it.
    On the morning of the 13th, I again dispatched Captain Anderson to Fort Pillow for the purpose of placing, if possible, the Federal wounded on board their transports, and report to me on his return the condition of affairs at the river. I respectfully refer you to his report, numbered 6.
    My loss in the engagement was 20 killed and 60 wounded. That of the enemy unknown. Two hundred and twenty-eight were buried on the evening of the battle, and quite a number were buried the next day by details from the gun-boat fleet.
    We captured 6 pieces of artillery, viz., two 10-pounder Parrott guns, two 12-pounder howitzers, and two brass 6-pounder guns, and about 350 stand of small-arms. The balance of the small-arms had been thrown in the river. All the small-arms were picked up where the enemy fell or threw them down. A few were in the fort, the balance scattered from the top of the hill to the water's edge.
    We captured 164 Federals, 75 negro troops, and about 40 negro women and children, and after removing everything of value as far as able to do so, the warehouses, tents, &c., were destroyed by fire.
    Among our severely wounded is Lieut. Col. Wiley M. Reed, assigned temporarily to the command of the Fifth Mississippi Regiment, who fell severely wounded while leading his regiment. When carried from the field he was supposed to be mortally wounded, but hopes are entertained of his ultimate recovery. He is a brave and gallant officer, a courteous gentleman, and a consistent Christian minister.
    I cannot compliment too highly the conduct of Colonels Bell and McCulloch and the officers and men of their brigades, which composed the forces of Brigadier-General Chalmers. They fought with courage and intrepidity, and without bayonets assaulted and carried one of the strongest fortifications in the country.
    On the 15th, at Brownsville, I received orders which rendered it necessary to send General Chalmers, in command of his own division and Bell's brigade, southward; hence I have no official report from him, but will, as soon as it can be obtained, forward a complete list of our killed and wounded, which has been ordered made out and forwarded at the earliest possible moment.
    In closing my report I desire to acknowledge the prompt and energetic action of Brigadier-General Chalmers, commanding the forces around Fort Pillow. His faithful execution of all movements necessary to the successful accomplishment of the object of the expedition entitles him to special mention. He has reason to be proud of the conduct of the officers and men of his command for their gallantry and courage in assaulting and carrying the enemy's work without the assistance of artillery or bayonets.
    To my staff, as heretofore, my acknowledgments are due for their prompt and faithful delivery of all orders.

    I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
    N. B. FORREST,
    Major-General, Commanding.


    Report of Lieut. Col. Thomas H. Harris, Assistant Adjutant-General, U. S. Army, of the garrison at Fort Pillow, etc.MARCH 16-APRIL 14, 1864.--Forrest's Expedition into West Tennessee and Kentucky.
    O.R.-- SERIES I--VOLUME XXXII/1 [S# 57]

    Memphis, Tenn., April 26, 1864.

    SIR: I wish to state that one section of Company D, Second U. S. Light Artillery (colored), 1 commissioned officer and 40 men, were sent to Fort Pillow about February 15, as part of the garrison.
    The garrison at Fort Pillow, by last reports received, consisted of the First Battalion, Sixth U.S. Heavy Artillery (colored), 8 commissioned officers and 213 enlisted men; one section Company D, Second U.S. Light Artillery (colored). I commissioned officer and 40 men; First Battalion, Thirteenth Tennessee Cavalry, Maj. W. F. Bradford, 10 commissioned officers and 285 enlisted men. Total white troops, 295; total colored troops, 262; grand total, 557. Six field pieces--two 6-pounders, two 12-pounder howitzers, and two 10-pounder Parrotts.

    T. H. HARRIS,
    Lieutenant-Colonel and Assistant Adjutant-General.

    [Inclosure No. 1.)
    Memphis, Tenn., March 28, 1864.

    Maj. L. F. BOOTH,
    Comdg. First Battalion, First Alabama Siege Artillery :

    SIR: You will proceed with your own battalion to Fort Pillow and establish your force in garrison of the works there. As you will be, if I am correct in my memory, the senior officer at that post, you will take command, conferring, however, freely and fully with Major Bradford, Thirteenth Tennessee Cavalry, whom you will find a good officer, though not of much experience.
    There are two points of land fortified at Fort Pillow, one of which only is now held by our troops. You will occupy both, either with your own troops alone or holding one with yours and giving the other in charge to Major Bradford. The positions are commanding, and can be held by a small force against almost any odds.
    I shall send you at this time two 12-pounder howitzers, as I hope it will not be necessary to mount heavy guns. You will, however, immediately examine the ground and the works, and if, in your opinion, 20-pounder Parrotts can be advantageously used, I will order them to you. My own opinion is that there is not range enough. Major Bradford is well acquainted with the country, and should keep scouts well out, and forward all information received direct to me.
    I think Forrest's check at Paducah will not dispose him to try the river again, but that he will fall back to Jackson and thence cross the Tennessee; as soon as this is ascertained I shall withdraw your garrison. Nevertheless, act promptly in putting the works into perfect order and the post into its strongest defense. Allow as little intercourse as possible with the country, and cause all supplies which go out to be examined with great strictness. No man whose loyalty is questionable should be allowed to come in or go out while the enemy is in West Tennessee.

    Your obedient servant,
    S. A. HURLBUT,

    [Inclosure No. 2.]
    Fort Pillow, Tenn., April 3, 1864.

    Major-General HURLBUT: GENERAL:
    Everything seems to be very quiet within a radius of from 30 to 40 miles around, and I do not think any apprehensions need be felt or fears entertained in reference to this place being attacked or even threatened. I think it perfectly safe.
    I have the honor to be, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant.

    L. F. BOOTH,
    Major Sixth U. S. Heavy Artillery (colored), Comdg. Fort.

    [Inclosure No. 3.]
    W. R. McLagan, a citizen of the United States, being first duly sworn, states upon oath that for the last two years he has been trading between Saint Louis. Mo.. and Covington, Tenn.; that at the time of the attack upon Fort Pillow, April 12, 1864, he was at Covington, Tenn., and was taken by General Forrest as a conscript on the 13th of April, with about 30 other citizens; that on the evening of the 12th of April Major Bradford, Thirteenth Tennessee Cavalry, U.S. forces, arrived at Covington under guard as a prisoner of war, and was reported as such to Colonel Duckworth, commanding Seventh Tennessee Cavalry, Confederate forces; that on the 13th of April Major Bradford and the conscripts, including the affiant, were placed in charge of two companies of the Seventh Tennessee Cavalry, Captains Russell and Lawler commanding. They were taken to Brownsville, Tenn., and started from there to Jackson, Tenn.
    When they had proceeded about 5 miles from Brownsville a halt was made, and Major Bradford was taken about 50 yards from the command by a guard of 5 Confederate soldiers in charge of a lieutenant, and was there deliberately shot, 3 of the Confederate soldiers discharging their fire-arms, all of which took effect, killing him instantly. This was on the 14th day of April, 1864, near dusk; that the body of Major Bradford was left unburied in the woods about 50 yards from the road.
    The affiant, with the other conscripts, was taken on to Jackson, and on the 22d day of April the affiant and 25 others of the conscripts made their escape from the Confederate forces at Jackson. On the way back he saw the body of Major Bradford lying in the same place where he was shot. This was on Saturday night, the 23d of April. Major Bradford, before he was shot, fell on his knees and said that he had fought them manfully, and wished to be treated as a prisoner of war.

    W. R. McLAGAN.
    Memphis, Tenn., April 25, 1864.

    Subscribed and sworn to before me this day.

    T. H. HARRIS,
    Lieut. Col. and Asst. Adjt. Gen., Sixteenth Army Corps.

    Fort Pickering, Memphis, Tenn., April 14, 1864.
    Lieut. Col. T. H. HARRIS,
    Assistant Adjutant-General.

    COLONEL: I have the honor to submit the following report of the battle and capture of Fort Pillow, Tenn.:
    At sunrise on the morning of the 12th of April, 1864, our pickets were attacked and driven in, they making very slight resistance. They were from the Thirteenth Tennessee Cavalry.
    Major Booth, commanding the post, had made all his arrangements for battle that the limited force under his command would allow, and which was only 450 effective men, consisting of the First Battalion of the Sixth U.S. Heavy Artillery, five companies of the Thirteenth Tennessee Cavalry, and one section of the Second U.S. Light Artillery (colored), Lieutenant Hunter.
    Arrangements were scarcely completed and the men placed in the rifle-pits before the enemy came upon us and in ten times our number, as acknowledged by General Chalmers. They were repulsed with heavy loss; charged again and were again repulsed. At the third charge Major Booth was killed, while passing among his men and cheering them to fight.
    The order was then given to retire inside the fort, and General Forrest sent in a flag of truce demanding an unconditional surrender of the fort, which was returned with a decided refusal.
    During the time consumed by this consultation advantage was taken by the enemy to place in position his force, they crawling up to the fort.
    After the flag had retired, the fight was renewed and raged with fury for some time, when another flag of truce was sent in and another demand for surrender made, they assuring us at the same time that they would treat us as "prisoners of war."
    Another refusal was returned, when they again charged the works and succeeded in carrying them. Shortly before this, however, Lieut. John D. Hill, Sixth U. S. Heavy Artillery, was ordered outside the fort to burn some barracks, which he, with the assistance of a citizen who accompanied him, succeeded in effecting, and in returning was killed.
    Major Bradford, of the Thirteenth Tennessee Cavalry, was now in command. At 4 o'clock the fort was in possession of the enemy, every man having been either killed, wounded, or captured.
    There never was a surrender of the fort, both officers and men declaring they never would surrender or ask for quarter.
    As for myself, I escaped by putting on citizens clothes, after I had been some time their prisoner. I received a slight wound of the left ear.
    I cannot close this report without adding my testimony to that accorded by others wherever the black man has been brought into battle. Never did men fight better, and when the odds against us are considered it is truly miraculous that we should have held the fort an hour. To the colored troops is due the successful holding out until 4 p.m. The men were constantly at their posts, and in fact through the whole engagement showed a valor not, under the circumstances, to have been expected from troops less than veterans, either white or black.
    The following is a list of the casualties among the officers as far as known: Killed, Maj. Lionel F. Booth, Sixth U.S. Heavy Artillery (colored); Maj. William F. Bradford, Thirteenth Tennessee Cavalry; Capt. Theodore F. Bradford, Thirteenth Tennessee Cavalry; Capt. Delos Carson, Company D, Sixth U.S. Heavy Artillery (colored); Lieut. John D. Hill, Company C, Sixth U.S. Heavy Artillery (colored); Lieut. Peter Bischoff, Company A, Sixth U.S. Heavy Artillery (colored). Wounded, Capt. Charles J. Epeneter, Company A, prisoner; Lieut. Thomas W. McClure, Company C, prisoner; Lieut. Henry Lippett, Company B, escaped, badly wounded; Lieutenant Van Horn, Company D, escaped, slightly wounded.
    I know of about 15 men of the Sixth U.S. Heavy Artillery (colored) having escaped, and all but 2 of them are wounded.

    I have the honor to be, very respectfully, &c.,
    2d Lieut. Company D, Sixth U.S. Heavy Artillery (colored).


    Report of Brig. Gen. James R. Chalmers, C. S. Army, commanding First Division Cavalry, of the capture of Fort Pillow.MARCH 16-APRIL 14, 1864.--Forrest's Expedition into West Tennessee and Kentucky.
    O.R.-- SERIES I--VOLUME XXXII/1 [S# 57]

    Verona, May 7, 1864.

    Maj. J.P. STRANGE,
    Assistant Adjutant-General.

    MAJOR: I have the honor to submit the following report of the actions of the troops under my command in the recent capture of Fort Pillow, Tenn.:
    In obedience to orders from Major-General Forrest, I directed Col. J. J. Neely, commanding First Brigade of this division, to move his command, on the morning of the 10th April, from Whiteville southward in the direction of Memphis, instructing him to produce the impression that he was the advance of General Forrest's command, and that our whole force was in his rear, and to make preparations for constructing pontoon bridges across Wolf River at Raleigh and one or two other points, and to make such demonstrations as would induce the enemy to believe that our whole force was about to attack Memphis. At the same time I ordered Col. John McGuirk, Third Regiment Mississippi State Cavalry, to move with his own regiment and the First Mississippi Partisans, under Major Park, northward from the Tallahatchie River toward Memphis, and to report that Major-General Lee was advancing from the south of that place. It gives me pleasure to report that both of these officers executed these orders with promptness and success.
    I then assumed command of a division composed of McCulloch's brigade of my division and Col. T. H. Bell's brigade of Buford's division.
    On the morning of the 11th instant, I moved this division from Sharon's Ferry, on Forked Deer, in the direction of Brownsville, and on the same morning moved Lieutenant-Colonel Chalmers' battalion through Brownsville on the Memphis road, and thence by a circuitous route back again to the Fort Pillow road. I moved from Brownsville in person, at 3.30 p.m., on the 11th and reached Fort Pillow, a distance of 40 miles, at daylight next morning. Colonel McCulloch, commanding advance, surprised the enemy's pickets and captured 4 of them. My orders from General Forrest were to invest the place, and I proceeded to do so as follows: McCulloch's brigade moved down the Fulton road to Gaines' farm; thence north to the fort on a road running parallel with the Mississippi River; Wilson's regiment, of Bell's brigade, moved on the direct road from Brownsville to Fort Pillow, and Colonel Bell with Barteau's and Russell's regiments moved down Coal Creek to attack the fort in the rear.
    The works at Fort Pillow consisted of a strong line of fortifications, originally constructed by Brigadier-General Pillow, of the C. S. Army, stretching from Coal Creek bottom, on the left, to the Mississippi River on the right, in length about 2 miles and at an average distance of about 600 yards from the river. Inside of this outer line and about 600 yards from it stood an interior work on the crest of a commanding hill, originally commenced by Brigadier-General Villepigue, C. S. Army, which covered about 2 acres of ground. About 300 yards in rear of this, above the junction of Coal Creek and the Mississippi River, stood the last fortification, which was a strong dirt fort in semicircular form, with a ditch in front of it 12 feet wide and 8 feet deep.
    The enemy did not attempt to hold the outer line, but trained their artillery so as to play upon the only roads leading through it.
    The fight was opened at daylight by McCulloch. He moved cautiously through the ravines and short hills which encompassed the place, protecting the men as much as possible from the enemy's artillery, five pieces of which from the fort, aided by two gun-boats on the river, played furiously upon him. Moving in this manner he succeeded about 11 o'clock in taking the work, which I have spoken of as having been commenced by General Villepigue, and the flag of the Eighteenth Mississippi Battalion, Lieutenant-Colonel Chalmers commanding, which had been the first regiment to enter the fort, was quickly flying above it.
    While Colonel McCulloch had been moving up on the left, Colonel Bell moved up on the right and rear, and Colonel Wilson moved up on the center, taking advantage of the ground as much as possible to shelter their men. Affairs were in this condition, with the main fort completely invested, when Major-General Forrest arrived with Colonel Wisdom's regiment of Buford's division. After carefully examining the position he ordered a general charge to be made. The troops responded with alacrity and enthusiasm, and in a short time took possession of all the rifle-pits around the fort, and closed up on all sides within 25 or 30 yards of the outer ditch. Here a considerable delay occurred from the ammunition being exhausted. A supply, however, was obtained as quickly as possible from the ordnance train and everything was made ready for another advance. To prevent the unnecessary effusion of blood Major-General Forrest now demanded, under flag of truce, the surrender of the place, which after a parley of about thirty minutes was refused. The bugle then sounded the charge, a general rush was made along the whole line, and in five minutes the ditch was crossed, the parapet scaled, and our troops were in possession of the fort.
    The enemy made no attempt to surrender, no white flag was elevated, nor was the U.S. flag lowered until pulled down by our men. Many of them were killed while fighting, and many more in the attempt to escape. The strength of the enemy's force cannot be correctly ascertained, though it was probably about 650 or 700. Of these, 69 wounded were delivered to the enemy's gun-boats next day, after having been paroled. One hundred and sixty-four white men and 40 negroes were taken prisoners, making an aggregate of 273 prisoners. It is probable as many as half a dozen may have escaped. The remainder of the garrison were killed.
    I cannot speak too highly of the conduct of the troops under my command. Colonels McCulloch and Bell deserve especial mention for the gallantry with which they led their respective brigades, and the troops emulated the conduct of their leaders. Lieutenant-Colo-nel Reed, temporarily commanding the Fifth Mississippi Cavalry, was pre-eminently daring, and fell mortally wounded while standing on the rifle-pits and encouraging his men to the charge, and Lieutenant Burton was killed at his side. Lieutenant Ryan, of Willis' Texas Battalion; who had won for himself the character of being the best soldier in his regiment, was killed by a shell, and Captain Sullivan, commanding the same battalion, was mortally wounded while most gallantly leading his command. Lieutenant Hubbard, of the Eighteenth Mississippi Battalion, a young but promising officer, was also mortally wounded and has since died.
    I cannot conclude this report without mentioning in an especial manner the gallant conduct of Capt. C. T. Smith, commanding my escort company, who led the charge as we moved from the first to the second fort, or without paying a tribute to Private Samuel Allen, of my escort, who was killed in the charge.
    I have already furnished a detailed report of the killed and wounded of my command, amounting to 14 killed and 86 wounded. A report of captured property has been called for from the two brigades, and will be forwarded as soon as received.
    I herewith submit reports of subordinate commanders.

    I have the honor to be, major, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
    Brigadier-General, Commanding.

    Oxford, Miss., April 20, 1864.

    SOLDIERS: I congratulate you upon your success in the brilliant campaign recently conducted in West Tennessee under the guidance of Major-General Forrest, whose star never shone brighter, and whose restless activity, untiring energy, and courage baffled the calculations and paralyzed the arms of our enemies.
    In a brief space of time we have killed 4,000 of the enemy, captured over 1,200 prisoners, 800 horses, 5 pieces of artillery, thousands of small-arms, and many stand of colors, destroyed millions of dollars' worth of property, and relieved the patriots of West Tennessee from the hourly dread in which they have been accustomed to live. West Tennessee is redeemed, and our friends who have heretofore been compelled to speak with bated breath now boldly proclaim their sentiments.
    It is with pride and pleasure that I review the part taken by the soldiers of this division in this decisive campaign.
    Colonel Duckworth, of the Seventh Tennessee, by a successful ruse at Union City made the enemy believe that Major-General Forrest was present, and compelled the surrender of the place by Hawkins and his regiment of renegade Tennesseeans, with all their arms, horses, and equipments.
    Colonel Neely, of the Thirteenth Tennessee, met the traitor Hurst at Bolivar, and after a short conflict, in which we killed and captured 75 prisoners of the enemy, drove Hurst hatless into Memphis, leaving in our hands all his wagons, ambulances, papers, and his mistresses, both black and white.
    The once arrogant Grierson, who has never recovered his equanimity since his flight from Okolona, ventured out with two brigades to look after us, when Lieutenant-Colonel Crews, with his dashing battalion, defeated his advance guard, and sent him hurriedly back to Memphis, where he remained trembling behind his fortifications and frightened at every mention of the name of Forrest.
    Colonel Neely on the north and Colonel McGuirk on the south, by well-executed demonstrations, alarmed the enemy for the safety of Memphis, while the lion-hearted McCulloch, with his "fighting brigade" of Missourians, Texans, and Mississippians, nobly assisted by Colonel Bell, with his gallant brigade of Tennesseeans, from Buford's division, temporarily attached to my command, stormed the works at Fort Pillow, in the face of the incessant fire from two gun-boats and five pieces of artillery from the fort, and taught the mongrel garrison of blacks and renegades a lesson long to be remembered.
    While we rejoice over our victories, let us not forget the few gallant spirits who yielded up their lives to their country, and fell as brave men love to fall, "with their backs to the field and their feet to the foe."

    Brigadier-General, Commanding.

  19. "...I tried all in my power to avert this war. I saw it coming, for twelve years I worked night and day to prevent it, but I could not. The North was mad and blind; it would not let us govern ourselves, and so the war came, and now it must go on till the last man of this generation falls in his tracks, and his children seize the musket and fight our battle, unless you acknowledge our right to self government. We are not fighting for slavery. We are fighting for Independence, and that, or extermination..."

    Confederate President Jefferson Davis
    The Atlantic Monthly, Volume 14, Page 378, 1864
  20. IN CONGRESS, July 4, 1776.
    The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America,
    When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.
    We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.--That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, --That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shewn, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security.--Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid world.
    He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public good.
    He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation till his Assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them.
    He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of Representation in the Legislature, a right inestimable to them and formidable to tyrants only.
    He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the depository of their public Records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures.
    He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people.
    He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause others to be elected; whereby the Legislative powers, incapable of Annihilation, have returned to the People at large for their exercise; the State remaining in the mean time exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without, and convulsions within.
    He has endeavoured to prevent the population of these States; for that purpose obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their migrations hither, and raising the conditions of new Appropriations of Lands.
    He has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing his Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary powers.
    He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the tenure of their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries.
    He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms of Officers to harrass our people, and eat out their substance.
    He has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Armies without the Consent of our legislatures.
    He has affected to render the Military independent of and superior to the Civil power.
    He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his Assent to their Acts of pretended Legislation:
    For Quartering large bodies of armed troops among us:
    For protecting them, by a mock Trial, from punishment for any Murders which they should commit on the Inhabitants of these States:
    For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world:
    For imposing Taxes on us without our Consent:
    For depriving us in many cases, of the benefits of Trial by Jury:
    For transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pretended offences
    For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighbouring Province, establishing therein an Arbitrary government, and enlarging its Boundaries so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule into these Colonies:
    For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws, and altering fundamentally the Forms of our Governments:
    For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.
    He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his Protection and waging War against us.
    He has plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people.
    He is at this time transporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries to compleat the works of death, desolation and tyranny, already begun with circumstances of Cruelty & perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a civilized nation.
    He has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high Seas to bear Arms against their Country, to become the executioners of their friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands.
    He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavoured to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages, whose known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions.
    In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Redress in the most humble terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated injury. A Prince whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people.
    Nor have We been wanting in attentions to our Brittish brethren. We have warned them from time to time of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpations, which, would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence. They too have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity, which denounces our Separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind, Enemies in War, in Peace Friends.
    We, therefore, the Representatives of the united States of America, in General Congress, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the Name, and by Authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States; that they are Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that as Free and Independent States, they have full Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which Independent States may of right do. And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes and our sacred Honor.
    The 56 signatures on the Declaration appear in the positions indicated:
    Column 1
    Button Gwinnett
    Lyman Hall
    George Walton
    Column 2
    North Carolina:
    William Hooper
    Joseph Hewes
    John Penn
    South Carolina:
    Edward Rutledge
    Thomas Heyward, Jr.
    Thomas Lynch, Jr.
    Arthur Middleton
    Column 3
    John Hancock
    Samuel Chase
    William Paca
    Thomas Stone
    Charles Carroll of Carrollton
    George Wythe
    Richard Henry Lee
    Thomas Jefferson
    Benjamin Harrison
    Thomas Nelson, Jr.
    Francis Lightfoot Lee
    Carter Braxton
    Column 4
    Robert Morris
    Benjamin Rush
    Benjamin Franklin
    John Morton
    George Clymer
    James Smith
    George Taylor
    James Wilson
    George Ross
    Caesar Rodney
    George Read
    Thomas McKean
    Column 5
    New York:
    William Floyd
    Philip Livingston
    Francis Lewis
    Lewis Morris
    New Jersey:
    Richard Stockton
    John Witherspoon
    Francis Hopkinson
    John Hart
    Abraham Clark
    Column 6
    New Hampshire:
    Josiah Bartlett
    William Whipple
    Samuel Adams
    John Adams
    Robert Treat Paine
    Elbridge Gerry
    Rhode Island:
    Stephen Hopkins
    William Ellery
    Roger Sherman
    Samuel Huntington
    William Williams
    Oliver Wolcott
    New Hampshire:
    Matthew Thornton

  21. Ogsonofgroo Member

    TL;RIHS (read in high school), read again, but wonders a couple of things. First, why not just link to the document with (maybe) a quote. Secondly, your own opinion highly lacks., especially about the quotes you chose in #1. Thirdly, too much other shit going on in the world, don't really give a fuck any more, its old, old news.
    I tried to ignore this thread and bowed out, but going on a silly 'dislike' jhiahd , when you yourself have yet to make some sort of meaningful statement about your own topic, interests me.
    But then again, why bother. byeee again!

    • Like Like x 1
  22. On this day 150 years ago Richmond Virginia the Confederate capitol was captured by the United States army, president Davis and his cabinet had already fled for Danville Virginia.


    View of the Confederate capital building in the center of this photo.

    Confederates where ordered to burn the military storage buildings.

    But the wind kicked up and blew the flames toward the rest of the city burning most of it in the process.

  23. This day in history 150 years ago.

    On April 7, 1865 in Farmville, Virginia For four days Gen. Robert E. Lee's ragged Army of Northern Virginia had been plodding west, trying to find a way around Gen. Ulysses S. Grant's pursuing Army of the Potomac. Ever since evacuating the entrenchments at Petersburg on April 2, Lee's starving army had been fighting during the day and marching at night. With the route south to North Carolina securely blocked by Union troops, Lee had no choice but to continue marching his exhausted soldiers west. He ordered food to be sent by rail from Lynchburg to the town of Farmville, 25 miles away on the south side of the Appomattox River. There he could get the much-needed food, cross over the river while burning the bridges behind him, and rest his men before trying to find a way to move south. On April 6, disaster struck. The pursuing Union troops had taken advantage of a gap in the Confederate column and, in the Battle of Sayler's Creek, cut off and captured 1/3 of Lee's men. Maj. Gen. Philip H. Sheridan reported the victory to Grant, adding, "If the thing is pressed I think Lee will surrender." Hearing of the message, Lincoln wired Grant, "Let the thing be pressed." On April 7, the remaining portion of Lee's army reached Farmville and the food in the waiting boxcars. Before most had finished cooking their bacon and cornbread, however, word came that Union troops were rapidly approaching from the east, on the north side of the river, having crossed a bridge four miles away. Lee had ordered the bridge destroyed, but the Union soldiers had arrived in time to put out the flames and then crossed in force.The partially cooked meals were abandoned as Lee's famished soldiers fell in to meet the threat. The bedraggled army held the Union soldiers at bay until dark and then began marching west again, toward Appomattox Courthouse. At 10:00 P.M., Lee received a message from Grant requesting his surrender. Without comment Lee passed the note to Gen. James Longstreet, who read it and, looking up, said, "Not yet."


    High Bridge near Farmville Virginia.
  24. I'm reading Dead Wake and the submarine in the civil war was mentioned. Did the sailors die in that one? It was the first sub attack I think.
  25. Was the sub called the Hunley?

    If so then yes they did.
  26. Yes that's the whole book with no copyright.

    It's from the Library of Congress.

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