Healbot thread - Protest relavant first aid (Somewhat long) I originally wrote this for Brighton Anon's to use, but have decided to post it here so that more people can read and adsorb my knowledge. HEALBOT TUTORIAL: The purpose of this thread is to train the field operative anon in the basics of first aid that may be required of them in the [STRIKE]battlefeild[/STRIKE] protests. These are the situations that in my opinion are most likley to happen. The following knowledge will NOT make you into a doctor, and i don't claim to be one. But it may well end up saving a life while waiting for the emergency services to arrive. Remember, it's really best to try and take precautions to make sure you won't ever need this knowledge. But as we all know, shit happens. Some points to note: 1) If you are going to read this, read ALL of it. 2) If there is anything you are unsure on in this thread ASK! 3) Please notify me if there is anything else you feel needs adding 4) This may all seem a little "Textbook" like, that is because most of it is Copy-Pasta from my training mannual. This thread will be broken down into 4 sections: 1) Casualty Management 2) Emergency Aid 3) Dealing with public and Emergency Services 4) Situation advice and Other Points Section 1: Casualty Management In this section i will detail what to do if you are the first to see, or around an emergency, these are the FIRST things that you must ALWAYS do. We use a neumonic to help us remember this procedure: AMEGA A - Asses the situation This is the first thing that you should do, it involves checking for danger around the area, and assesing what has happened to the casualty. Potential Dangers Include: -Traffic -Mass Movements of People -Fire -Gas -Electricity -Boiling Water -Buckets of Acid -Anything Else that poses a danger to the casualty or to YOU DO NOT PUT YOURSELF IN DANGER!! 2 Casualties is FAR worse than 1, if there is a danger that you cannot remove (i.e The casualty is in a lake, or a burning building) DONT GO IN! - If it looks unsafe, it probably is. You also need to make a quick (No more than one second) ZERO BULLSH!T assesment of the casualties injuries. M - Make Safe After assessing any dangers, this is the next step, this could involve: -Stopping Traffic -Keeping people away -SAFELY attempting to tackle any fire (Remember: DONT put yourself in danger, a dead hero is no good to anyone) -If there is gas, open any doors and windows then get out and call the gas board -If someone is in contact with a live electrical wire, then get a DRY bit of wood or plastic (Brooms are good for this) and poke it off them Remember, DONT PUT YOURSELF IN DANGER! By this point, you, or someone else should be on the phone to the emergency services, if this is not the case, get someone on the phone!! E - Emergency Aid This is covered in section 2... it involves administering First Aid to the casualty/ Casualties G - Get Help If there is someone else around who can help, get them doing this AS SOON AS POSSIBLE! don't wait until this stage to do so unless you are on your own. NEVER leave the casualty, if you don't have a phone, just shout "HELP!" as loud as you can, this normally gets attention A - Aftermath This is only done AFTER the emergency services have delt with the situation, it invloves informing relatives, re-stocking your first aid kit, and if there is a police investigation looking into the incident, speaking to them, as a first aider you will have got a good picture of the extent of their injuries. This is the end of section 1, test yourself on AMEGA, and make sure you know what it stands for, it is VERY useful, and could save lives. Section 2: Emergency Aid In this section we will cover the different types of incident you are likley to come accross at a raid, and how to deal with it. Fainting: This is quite common, and may well be caused by dehydration. Symptoms: Laying on the floor, limp, as if asleap. Possible Problems: Could vomit and choke on it (This has been known to kill) and airways could be blocked due to an awkward head position (Can also kill) Treatment: 1) Check to see if they are still breathing by placing your head next to their face and looking down their chest, you should feel breath on your face, or see the chest rising and falling, or both. Do this for AT LEAST 10 seconds, to ensure that breathing is constant. 2) Open their mouth slightly and check to see if they have anything in there (Caek, Ciggeretts, Gum etc...) and CAREFULLY remove it 3) Recovery Position... you will no doubt have seen lots of different ways to do this, all involving folding their arms and legs in different ways... the easiest (and safest) thing to do, is to feel with the back of your hand (No sexual assault claims for me ) down the side you are going to roll them on (normally the side closest to you) to ensure they dont have anything sharp in their pockets (Knifes, Needles etc...) then just roll them on their side, and tilt their head up slightly to open the airways. This is all that is needed as they can breathe easily and if they vomit it will not stay in their mouth. 4) In most cases the casualty will come round after about a minute or so, make sure you have called an ambulance anyway, better safe than sorry. Panick Attacks: This is a very sudden, very severe nervous breakdown, they happen suddenly and are scary to see happen. They can be caused by a variety of things, ranging from being scared about where you are, to having just a little bit too much red bull in an enviroment where you are already on edge. Symptoms: Casualty will normally be on the floor, possilby crying, will be breathing heavily and probbably shaking. It is easy to tell when this is happening Potential Problems: Hyperventilation (Breathing too much) can make you faint, and COULD make you unconcious, casualty may also become VERY paranoid and aggressive, and will refuse to be helped if not attended to quickly Treatment: Get someone you know the person trusts to come and sit beside them, and calm them down. Distract them with something else, totally unrelated to the current situation, perhaps if they saw a (HAPPY!!!) film recently, ask them about it. Just get them thinking about something else until they calm down. There is not much else that can be done, if they do loose conciousness then call an ambulance straight away. When they calm down again, get them to SIP some water and about 5 minutes later (Once you are sure they are not going to relapse/ go into shock) let them eat something LOW in sugar (You can't go wrong with bread ) Asthma Attacks: In an asthma attack the muscles of the air passages in the lungs go into spasm and the linings of the airways swell. As a result, the airways become narrowed and breathing becomes difficult. Symptoms: - -Difficulty in breathing, with a very prolonged breathing-out phase. -Wheezing as the casualty breathes out. -Difficulty speaking and whispering. -Distress and anxiety. -Coughing. Potential Problems:- -Someone dies every 7 minutes from an asthma attack in the UK, and they should be taken VERY seriously -They can KILL Treatment:- -keep the casualty calm and reassure them. -If they have a blue reliever inhaler then encourage them to use it. (It should relieve the attack within a few minutes) -Encourage the casualty to breathe slowly and deeply. -Encourage the casualty to sit in a position that they find most comfortable, often leaning forward with arms resting on a table or the back of a chair. Do not lie the casualty down. -A mild asthma attack should ease within 3 minutes but if it doesn’t encourage the casualty to use their inhaler again. IF AFTER 3-4 MINUTES THE ATTACK HAS NOT CALMED DOWN... CALL AN AMBULANCE!!! After calling the ambulance, get them to take their inhaler every 5 minutes until the ambulance arrives Hypoglycaemia (low blood sugar) When the blood-sugar level falls below normal (hypoglycaemia) brain function is affected. This problem is sometimes recognised by a rapidly deteriorating level of response. Hypoglycaemia can occur in people with diabetes mellitus and, more rarely, appear with an epileptic seizure or after an episode of binge drinking. It can also complicate heat exhaustion or hypothermia. Symptoms:- -the casualty may recognise the onset of a "hypo" attack. -Weakness, faintness, or hunger. -Palpitations and muscle tremors. -Strange actions or behaviour; the casualty may seem confused -Sweating and cold, clammy skin. -Pulse may be rapid and strong. -Deteriorating level of response. -Diabetic's warning card, glucose gel, tablets, or an insulin syringe in casualty's possessions. Potential Problems:- -A Hypo attack can be very serious, 'nuff said. Treatment:- -Your aim is to raise the sugar content of the blood as quickly as possible and to obtain medical help if necessary. -Help the casualty to sit or lie down. -Give them a sugary drink, sugar lumps, chocolate or any other sweet food. Don’t give them diet drinks, they don’t have the sugar in them that they need. -Alternatively if the patient has their own glucose gel help them to take it. If the casualty responds quickly: * Give them more food and drink and let them rest until they feel better. * Advise them to see their doctor even if they feel fully recovered. Warning! If their consciousness is impaired don’t give them anything to eat or drink as they may not be able to swallow or drink it properly. If the condition does not improve: Call an ambulance... Hypothermia Hypothermia develops when the body temperature falls below 35°C (95°F). The effects vary depending on the speed of the onset and the level to which the body temperature falls. Moderate hypothermia can usually be completely reversed. Severe hypothermia – when the core body temperature falls below 30°C (86°F) – is often, but not always fatal. However, no matter how low the body temperature is, it is always worth persisting with life-saving procedures until a doctor arrives to assess the casualty. Symptoms:- -Shivering and pale, cold, dry skin. -Disorientation, apathy or irrational behaviour; occasionally belligerence. -Impaired consciousness or lethargy. -Slow and shallow breathing. -Slow and weakening pulse. -In extreme cases the heart may stop. Potential Problems: -Hypothermia is easily caught on, and can KILL if not treated effectivly and quickly Treatment:- -For a casualty who has been brought in from outside, immediately replace wet clothing with warm, dry garments. -If a casualty is outside:- -Make sure that they are dry, replace any wet clothes with dry ones -Make sure they are out of the wind -Make sure they are not laying on the floor (Unless in a sleeping bag or similar with something underneath it) -Cover them with a dry blanket, make sure they are well covered, but not smothered. -Give them a hot drink and something hot to eat -Give them something high in energy that IS NOT COLD (Mars bar that has been in your pocket for the day) -Get them to cross their arms over their chest, this warms up the heart, and the blood. If they do not warm up, get them inside, or if this is not possible and the condition worsens, call an ambulance. Heat Exhaustion: Heat exhaustion is caused by a loss of salt and water from the body, usually through excessive sweating. It develops gradually and it usually happens to people who are not acclimatised to hot humid conditions or people that are unwell, especially those with illnesses that cause vomiting and diarrhoea. They are more susceptible than others to developing heat exhaustion. Symptoms:- -Headache. - Dizziness and confusion. - Loss of appetite. - Nausea. - Sweating with pale clammy skin. - Cramps in the arms, legs and the abdominal wall. - Rapid, weakening pulse. - Rapid, shallow breathing. Potential Problems: -Heat Exhaustion can have severe long term affects, and can be fatal. Treatment:- -Your aims are to replace any lost body fluids and salt; to cool the casualty down, if necessary, and to obtain medical help. -Help the casualty to a cool place. -Get them to lie down with their legs raised. -Give them plenty of water. -Follow if possible with a weak salt solution - 1 teaspoon of salt per litre of water, assist the casualty to drink it. -Even if the casualty recovers quickly, ensure that they see a doctor. -If the casualty’s responses deteriorate place them into the recovery position and dial 999 or 112 for an ambulance. -Monitor and record any vital signs – the level of response, the pulse and breathing rate. It is always nessecary to call an ambulance for this, even if they feel fine. Bleeding:- Although it may seem trivial, bleeding is serious, as blood loss can be fatal within minutes, and there is risk of infection Symptoms: -Casualty "Will have red on them" Potential Problems:- -You can bleed to death in minutes -Cuts can get infected Treatment (Minor Cuts):- -Wash and dry your own hands. -Cover any cuts on your own hands and put on disposable gloves. -Clean the cut, if dirty, under running water (Or with a sterile antiseptic wipe). Pat dry with a sterile dressing or clean lint-free material. If possible, raise affected area above the heart. -Ensure that the cut is clean, has no dirt in it, then apply a sterile dressing or plaster, dependant on size of cut Treatment (Severe Bleeding):- -Put on disposable gloves. -Apply direct pressure to the wound with a pad (e.g. a clean cloth) or fingers until a sterile dressing is available. - Raise and support the injured limb. Take particular care if you suspect a bone has been broken. -Lay the casualty down to treat for shock. - Bandage the pad or dressing firmly to control bleeding, but not so tightly that it stops the circulation to fingers or toes. If bleeding seeps through first bandage, cover with a second bandage. If bleeding continues to seep through bandage, remove it and reapply. -Call an ambulance Shock Shock is a life-threatening condition that occurs when the vital organs, such as the brain and heart are deprived of oxygen due to a problem affecting the circulatory system. The most common cause of shock is blood loss but can be caused by other fluid loss such as vomiting or severe burns. Shock may also be caused when the heart has been damaged in some way, such as heart attack or angina and is unable to pump an adequate supply to the body. After ANY medical emergency you must ALWAYS take steps to ensure the casualty is not going into shock, and treat them if they are. In a lot of cases there will be shock after an incident Symptoms:- -Pale, cold, clammy skin (skin could become blue/grey in appearance in severe shock, lips especially may appear blue) -Sweating -Weakness and dizziness -Feeling sick and possibly vomiting -Thirst -Rapid, shallow breathing. -Yawning (Possibly Sighing) -Rapid, weak pulse -In extreme cases, unconsciousness. Potential Problems: -Shock can be FATAL Treatment:- -Lay the casualty down, raise and support their legs. -Use a coat or blanket to keep them warm – but not smothered. -Do not give them anything to eat or drink. -Check breathing and pulse frequently. -Give lots of comfort and reassurance. When someone goes into shock it is normally best to call an ambulance This is the end of Section 2, if there is anything you feel i should add, let me know. Section 3: - Dealing with the public and emergency services Calling an Ambulance You can call an ambulance from any mobile phone, or pay phone, even if there is no SIM card in the phone (This was correct when i last checked), if the phone or payphone has no credit/ money in it you can still use it to call an ambulance. Use the neumonic LINOEL to remember what you need to tell the operator Calling the operator: Dial 999 or 112 in europe You will be given the option of Ambulance, Police, Fire or Coastguard... In a medical emergency choose ambulance (Even if you need the fire service or police, you specify this later) The operator will repeat your choice to you then pass you on to whichever service you asked for. You will need to use LINOEL here Location:- You need to tell the operator where you are, dont panic if you dont know exactly where you are, point out landmarks and shops ("Outside the brighton luggage centre, at church hill square, by the bus stops" would probbably be fine) If you really don't know then try to point out anything, if all else fails (At time of writing) they can trace you quite accuratly, but this takes time and so should be used as a last resort. Incident:- This involves pointing out what happened for example: "Someone got assaulted" "Someone got hit by a car" Just explain what has happened Other Agencies Required:- This is where, if there has been a car crash, or there is a building burning you ask for the fire service, or if needs be, the police. Number of Casualties:- Tell them how many casualties there are Extent of Injury:- "One person fainted, gone into shock" Give a description of what injuries the casualty has, also, now is the time to point out approximate age, any medical conditions etc... Location:- Tell them one last time, just to be sure Dealing with the public This is one of the hardest things to do, i am sure you have all been in town and someone has fainted, there is always a crowd gathered doing nothing but getting in the way. It is VITAL that you get them to stay back from the casualty, the last thing they want is to be crowded, they need room to brethe, especially if they are going into shock. If you can, try and get them to leave... this is normally best, as they will do nothing but stand there and could block the path of the emergency services. It is always good to get the public to help, they are normally more than willing to so they have something interesting to talk about over dinner that evening... dont be afraid to use them, they are just being useless otherwise. Tell one of them to call an ambulance, or go get a first aid kit. That way you have one less bystander and one more person that has a slight clue what they need to be doing. This is the end of Section 3... shorter wasn't it? Section 4:- Protips -DONT PANIC!! easier said than done i know, but if you act calm and look as if you know what you are doing then people are more likley to trust and respect you -Dealing with an emergency is pretty scary, even with the more minor wounds, knowing that you are responsible for their health is pretty scary! -It is probably best to call an ambulance, if you call one out and it turns out it wasnt really needed, they wont be angry at you, they only get pissed off when people call them out because they have a cough or something trivial like that -Once again, do not put yourself in any danger. A dead anon will bring no lulz.