http://pure.au.dk/portal-asb-student/files/36298305/BAThesis.pdf Archetypes in Organizations: An analysis of the Church of Scientology's multiple identities Kristo Raun BAMMC, Spring 2011 Supervisor: Trine M. Østergaard Aarhus School of Business Summary Recent years have seen many organizations take branding to the next level - storytelling. Storytelling in organizations relies, similarly to storytelling in other forms, on archetypal identities - identities which are understood universally. However, as the storytelling field is relatively novel, some organizations seem to be confused on the use of archetypal identities. This paper set out to find the answer to the following problem statement: From a theoretical perspective, what implications does the presence of a variety of archetypal identities have on the brand identity of an organization; and how do these implications relate to the case of the Church of Scientology's storytelling in the online environment? The thesis was approached from a philosophical hermeneutics approach, leaving the interpreting of the results of the research dependent on the cognition of the researcher. The results of the analysis are reliant on the theories and presumptions discussed in the paper. The case of the Church of Scientology was chosen for the organization's lack of concrete aim, surrounding controversy, and presence of variety of archetypes, thus making the organization suitable for the analysis in the paper. The theory used in this thesis depends heavily on the system of archetypes by Mark and Pearson. The branding perspective of Aaker and marketing and management perspective of Kotler and Keller were used to substantiate Mark and Pearson's storytelling portion of the theory. The analysis was divided into two main parts: the analysis of theory, and the case analysis. From the analysis of theory, it was found that most organizations operate under several archetypes, in order to satisfy the different level needs of their customers. However, successful brands work under one dominant archetype - the superordinate archetype - which defines the brand identity and the organization's communication and marketing efforts. The other archetypes function as subordinate archetypes, used to support the superordinate archetype, and provide gratification of the needs that the superordinate archetype does not meet. The case analysis of the Church of Scientology found the organization to be operating under two superordinate archetypes: the Caregiver and the Sage. As these identities focus on satisfying contrasting needs - the Caregiver symbolizing altruistic moral, while the Sage being centered on self-realization - it was argued that the use of these conflicting archetypal identities might be one of the causes for the controversy surrounding the Church of Scientology and the rejection of Scientology as a religion in many countries. Thus, focusing only on the Caregiver as the superordinate archetype, and relegating the Sage to a subordinate archetype, would help alleviate the problem. In conclusion, the main implication of using multiple superordinate archetypes was the miscommunication and ambiguity present in the organization, and a potential for controversies and crises. Therefore, organizations should be reliant on a single superordinate archetypal identity. Number of characters (no spaces) in the Summary: 2635 Table of Contents 1. Introduction 1 1.1 Problem Statement 2 1.2 Method and Structure 2 1.3Limitations 3 1.4 Relevance 3 2. Background Information 4 2.1 History of the Church of Scientology 4 2.2 Controversies 5 3. Theoretical Framework 6 3.1 Archetypes 6 3.1.2 Archetypes and Marketing Management 8 3.2 Brand Identity 8 4. Analysis 10 4.1 Theoretical Analysis 10 4.2 Case Study Analysis 12 4.2.1 Determination of Archetypes 12 4.2.2 Categorization of Archetypes 19 4.2.3 Implications and Suggestions 21 5. Conclusion 24 Works Cited 25 Appendix 35 Total number of characters (no spaces): 51 387 1. Introduction The last couple of decades have seen drastic changes in the marketing scene. In large part due to globalization and the triumph of mass media, especially the Internet, for- and not-for-profit organizations alike have realized that simply having a good product or cause is no longer enough for consumers to indulge into becoming customers or supporters of the organization. If product characteristics are no longer enough, what needs to be done for a successful marketing effort? Many organizations have found the answer to be branding. Branding is, essentially, a means to distinguish between otherwise similar or even interchangeable products or services. The simplest element of branding is giving the product a unique name - for example, naming a carbonated sugary drink Coca-Cola. Further branding efforts may include associating the product with symbols - the bitten apple in the logo of Apple Inc; colors - the signature red color of Ferraris; and slogans - Nike's "Just Do It". However, recent years have also seen conventional branding become less successful. Saturation of similar products on the market has caused consumers to be timid in becoming loyal to a certain brand, and as such, many consumers opt for impulse buying and often change their preferred brand. Organizations who have managed to counter this trend and establish a loyal customer-base have been found to go beyond branding - they tap into storytelling. Storytelling helps people to identify with certain values and fulfill their needs. Storytelling in organizational level is in many ways similar to storytelling found in books and movies, except the characters we find in entertainment media are played by organizations. These characters serve as subordinates to a limited list of archetypes - embodiments of concrete sets of values and patterns of behavior. For example, Lego, the toy-company, raises the creativity of its consumers by allowing the users of lego-toys to configure the toys according to their liking. This is supported by the Lego company itself showing creativity through the years in developing novel toys, together with stories and events to support the toys and the story of the Lego company. Thus, it can be said that the Lego company operates in the Creator archetype, as defined by Mark and Pearson (242-258). In other words, the organization follows the values and behavior typically representing creators in stories - and as a consequence the organization allows its consumers to feel as creators. Using organizational storytelling makes the product or cause of the organization more memorable and distinguishable. While the product characteristics, and even the name, symbols, colors and slogans of an organization may often be closely imitated, the organizations stories and values are elements which are difficult to truthfully replicate. Another company might start producing toys similar to those of Lego's, but without the history and stories of Lego, the new company will not have as strong association with the Creator archetype, giving the Lego company its advantage. As the business field has started to recognize storytelling as a part of marketing, many organizations seem to be confused and caught in between stories lacking cohesiveness, by choosing stories which attribute to various archetypal identities, instead of a single explicit identity. This paper will try to examine what significance the display of a mixture of identities has on an organization. 1.1 Problem Statement The thesis attempts to find an answer to the following problem statement: From a theoretical perspective, what implications does the presence of a variety of archetypal identities have on the brand identity of an organization; and how do these implications relate to the case of the Church of Scientology's storytelling in the online environment?