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Alleged source: Aaron Swartz

Discussion in 'Freedom of Expression' started by Anonymous, Jan 14, 2013.

  1. Anonymous Member

    Aaron's name is credited to indicate support for his Open Access Manifesto
  2. Pique Member

    added qualifier to OP
  3. Anonymous Member

  4. Anonymous Member

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  7. Anonymous Member

    ELECTRONIC WARFARE (EW) HISTORICAL
    PERSPECTIVES AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO INFORMATION OPERATIONS (IO)—CONSIDERATIONS FOR TURKEY
    by
    Ali Can Kucukozyigit September 2006

    TABLE OF CONTENTS
    I. INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................1
    A. RESEARCH FOCUS.......................................................................................1
    B. MAJOR RESEARCH QUESTIONS .............................................................2
    C. KEY DEFINITIONS .......................................................................................3
    D. IMPORTANCE AND BENEFITS OF THE STUDY...................................4
    E. ORGANIZATION OF THE THESIS ............................................................5
    II. INFORMATION ..........................................................................................................7
    A. BACKGROUND ..............................................................................................7
    1. How is Information Defined?..............................................................7
    2. Understanding the Information Environment ..................................8
    3. Information Superiority in Information Operations (IO) .............10
    B. WHY IS INFORMATION ESSENTIAL TO THE MILITARY? ............11
    C. MEASURING THE QUALITY OF INFORMATION ..............................14
    D. WHAT IS THE OODA LOOP? ...................................................................15
    III. INFORMATION OPERATIONS AND ELECTRONIC WARFARE .................19
    A. WHAT IS INFORMATION OPERATIONS (IO)?....................................19
    1. Defining Information Operations .....................................................19
    2. Core Competencies of IO ..................................................................20
    a. Psychological Operations (PSYOP) ...
    a. Psychological Operations (PSYOP) .......................................21
    b. Military Deception (MILDEC) ...............................................22
    c. Operations Security (OPSEC) ................................................24
    d. Computer Network Operations (CNO)...................................25
    3. Supporting Competencies of IO .......................................................25
    a. Information Assurance (IA) ...................................................26
    b. Physical Security .....................................................................27
    c. Physical Attack........................................................................27
    d. Counter-Intelligence (CI) .......................................................28
    e. Combat Camera (COMCAM) .................................................28
    4. Related Competencies of IO..............................................................29
    a. Public Affairs (PA)..................................................................29
    b. Civil Military Operations (CMO) ...........................................30
    c. Defense Support to Public Diplomacy (DSPD) .....................31
    B. WHAT IS ELECTRONIC WARFARE (EW)? ..........................................31
    1. Some Definitions Related to Electronic Warfare............................31
    2. Defining Electronic Warfare.............................................................32
    3. The Major Activities Performed in EW...........................................34
    4. EW Subdivisions ................................................................................36
    a. Electronic Attack (EA)............................................................36
    b. Electronic Protection (EP)......................................................37
    c. Electronic Warfare Support (ES)...........................................38
    IV. HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES OF EW AND THE EVOLUTION OF IO......41
    HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE OF EW .....................................................41
    1. Before and During the First World War .........................................42
    2. 1919 to the End of Second World War ............................................46
    3. 1946 to the First Gulf War ................................................................50
    a. EW during the Korean War (1950–1953) and U-2 Missions ...................................................................................51
    b. EW during the Vietnam War (1957–1953) ............................54
    c. Yom Kippur (1973) and the Bekaa Valley (1982)..................57
    d. The First Gulf War (Operation DESERT STORM)..............59
    B. THE BIRTH AND THE EVOLUTION OF INFORMATION OPERATIONS ...............................................................................................65
    1. Historical Perspectives of Information Operations ........................65
    2. The Evolution of the Term “Information Operations” ..................66
    3. Differences between C2W, IW and IO.............................................68
    V. INTERACTION AND RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EW AND EACH IO COMPETENCY.........................................................................................................71
    A. ELECTRONIC WARFARE INTERACTION WITH CORE
    COMPETENCIES .........................................................................................71
    1. Computer Network Operations (CNO) and EW ............................71
    2. Military Deception (MILDEC) and EW ..........................................73
    3. Operations Security (OPSEC) and EW ...........................................75
    4. Psychological Operations (PSYOP) and EW ..................................79
    B. HOW DO THE SUPPORTING COMPETENCIES SYNCHRONIZE WITH EW?.....................................................................................................84
    1. Physical Security and EW .................................................................85
    2. Physical Attack (Hard Kill) and EW ...............................................87
    3. Counter Intelligence (CI) and EW ...................................................91
    4. Combat Camera (COMCAM) and EW ...........................................91
    5. Information Assurance (IA) and EW...............................................92
    C. THE PA, CMO, AND DSPD RELATIONSHIP TO EW...........................92
    VI. CONCLUSION AND IO-EW CONSIDERATIONS FOR TURKEY ..................97
    A. IO CONSIDERATIONS FOR TURKEY ....................................................97
    B. EW CONSIDERATIONS FOR TURKEY ................................................102
    C. CONCLUDING REMARKS ......................................................................107
    D. FURTHER STUDY RECOMMENDATIONS..........................................111
  8. Anonymous Member

    Table 1.
    Table 2. Table 3.
    Table 4. Table 5. Table 6. Table 7. Table 8. Table 9.
    LIST OF TABLES
    Information Operations (IO) Competencies (After Joint Publication 3-13, I-6)....................................................................................................................20 The Principles of Military Deception (After Joint Publication 3-58, p. I-3) ...23 The Principle Activities of Electronic Warfare ( After Joint Publication 3-
    51, I-5 to I-8)....................................................................................................34 Important Events Relating to Electronic Warfare through World War I.........46 Assets Used For ES, EA and EP Purposes During the First Gulf War............61 Information Operations Competencies ............................................................68 Differences Between IO, IW, and C2W ..........................................................69 Military Deception Relations to Electronic Warfare .......................................75 Relation of Electronic Warfare to Operations Security Process......................76
  9. Anonymous Member

    WHAT IS THE OODA LOOP?
    As mentioned above, all Information Operations efforts concentrate on decision- making processes. The ultimate IO objective is to influence the adversary decision making cycle and the same time protect the friendly. One of the methodologies used to understand decision-making processes is Observe-Orient-Decide-Act (OODA). OODA is a theory that was developed by Col. John Boyd, a former U.S. Air Force officer. This process is critical not only for military commanders but also political leaders, or any individual who is in a position to make decisions.

    In order to achieve information superiority and become successful in conducting IO, one should be able to get into the adversary’s OODA loop by breaking it, slowing it down, and manipulating it so that it produces delays and incorrect actions. On the other hand, one should protect his or her OODA loop from hostile activities by hiding it from enemy information collection activities, keeping the cycle unbroken and robust, making it act faster than the enemy’s cycle, and sustaining the health of the OODA loop so that it produces appropriate and timely decisions.
  10. Anonymous Member

    Psychological Operations (PSYOP)
    Psychological operations have an important role in military operations. Mao emphasized that importance by indicating the mind of the enemy and the will of his leaders as a target that is much more important than the bodies of the troops they have As the purpose of psychological operations is to influence foreign decision makers to decide in friendly favor, it definitely makes a critical contribution beyond the normal kinetic goal of killing enemy soldiers. Psychological operations are defined as “planned operations to convey selected truthful information and indicators to foreign audiences to influence their emotions, motives, objective reasoning, and ultimately, the behavior of their governments, organizations, groups, and individuals; and the purpose of PSYOP is to introduce or reinforce foreign attitudes and behavior favorable to the originator’s objectives”

    Computer Network Operations (CNO)
    Along with electronic warfare, computer network operations is a capability that has evolved recently and has become very popular in a short time period. The reason for this is the increasing use of networking and information technologies (IT) infrastructure in military and civilian organizations. To attack, deceive, degrade, disrupt, deny, exploit, and defend electronic information and infrastructures, CNO is comprised of computer network attack (CNA), computer network defense (CND), and computer network exploitation (CNE).
  11. Anonymous Member

  12. Anonymous Member

    http://cryptome.org/2013/03/key-hackers.pdf
    Securing Cyberspace:

    Identifying Key Actors in
    Hacker Communities

    • Like Like x 1
  13. Anonymous Member

    .

    2.


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  14. Anonymous Member

  15. Anonymous Member

    .
  16. Anonymous Member

    http://cryptome.org/2013/03/dni-13-0312.pdf




    Table of Contents






    GLOBAL THREATS



    Cyber


    1Increasing Risk to US Critical Infrastructure
    1 Eroding US Economic and National Security
    Information Control and Internet Governance2
    2 Other Actors
    3 Terrorism and Transnational Organized Crime

    3 Terrorism Evolving Homeland Threat Landscape
    The Global Jihadist Threat Overseas: Affiliates, Allies, and Sympathizers
    Iran and Lebanese Hizballah
    Transnational Organized Crime


    WMD Proliferation

    6 Iran and North Korea Developing WMD-Applicable Capabilities WMD
    7. Security in Syria
    8 Counterintelligence
    Threats to US Government Supply Chains

    8
    9



    Counterspace
    9



    Natural Resources: Insecurity and Competition
    Food
    Water
    Minerals: China’s Monopoly on Rare Earth Elements
    Energy
    Climate Change and Demographics

    Health and Pandemic Threats
    9
    9
    10
    11
    12
    12

    12



    Mass Atrocities

    13
  17. Anonymous Member



    ^^^^^
    US INTELLIGENCE COMMUNITY

    WORLDWIDE THREAT ASSESSMENT
    STATEMENT FOR THE RECORD
    March 12, 2013
    • Like Like x 1
  18. Anonymous Member

    http://cryptome.org/2013/03/hacking-digital-dissidence.pdf#page=4&zoom=auto,0,80
    Giovanni Ziccardi
    Resistance, Liberation
    Technology and Human
    Rights in the Digital Age

    v
    1 Opening Remarks: Hacking and Digital Dissidence
    .............................. 1
    1.1 Using Computers for the Pursuit of Political and Social
    Changes and for the Bene fi t of All Mankind ..................................... 1
    1.2 From Early Hackers to Digital Resistance Activities ........................ 5
    1.3 The So-Called
    Twitter Revolutions
    .................................................... 7
    1.4 The Worldwide Scenario, and Some Preliminary
    Interpretative Questions ..................................................................... 9
    References ................................................................................................... 22
    2 Digital Resistance, Digital Liberties and Digital Transparency
    ........... 27
    2.1 A Preliminary De fi nition of
    Digital Resistance

    and
    Digital Liberties
    .......................................................................... 27
    2.1.1 Some Focal Aspects of Digital Dissidence ............................ 27
    2.1.2 Preliminary Legal and Political Remarks .............................. 28
    2.1.3 The Power of Technology in Critical Contexts
    and the New Public Sphere .................................................... 30
    2.2 The Fundamental Role of a Secure (and Peer-Reviewed)
    Liberation Technology: The
    Haystack
    Case-History ......................... 32
    2.3 Two Key Aspects of Digital Resistance Activities,
    and Several Case Studies ................................................................... 36
    2.3.1 The Key Aspects of Dissident Activities ............................... 36
    2.3.2 Digital Resistance Case-Studies ............................................. 41
    2.4 Open Government, Collaborative Transparency
    and Civic Hacking as a Form of Digital Resistance .......................... 47
    2.4.1 The Idea of Government as a Platform
    for Transparency..................................................................... 47
    2.4.2 The Metaphor of Government 2.0 and the Idea
    of Collaborative Transparency ............................................... 49
    Contents
    vi
    2.4.3 Citizen Engagement for the Oversight
    of Political Activity ................................................................ 51
    2.4.4 Collaborative Mapping and Digital Resistance ...................... 59
    References ................................................................................................... 68
    3 Hacking and Digital Dissidence Activities
    .............................................. 73
    3.1 The Role of Hackers in the Landscape of Digital Resistance .......... 73
    3.2 A First Analysis of Common Threats to Digital
    Freedom and to Hacker Activities ................................................... 74
    3.3 Being a Hacker in This Framework ................................................. 76
    3.3.1 Thinking Like a Hacker ....................................................... 76
    3.3.2 State Antagonism, Fear and Violence .................................. 79
    3.4 A Brand New Playground ................................................................ 81
    3.4.1 Liberation Technologies ....................................................... 81
    3.4.2 Anonymity and Bloggers’ Rights ........................................ 84
    3.4.3 Innovation ............................................................................ 86
    3.4.4 Intellectual Property and Privacy ......................................... 86
    3.4.5 EPIC Activities in the Field of Privacy ................................ 88
    3.4.6 Transparency ........................................................................ 89
    3.5 A New Perspective on Hacking ....................................................... 90
    3.5.1 The Essence of hacking ....................................................... 90
    3.5.2 The Hacker Spirit and Some Lessons
    from the Ushahidi Project .................................................... 91
    3.5.3 A New Breed of Hackers ..................................................... 94
    3.6 The
    Do-It-Yourself
    Approach ........................................................... 97
    3.7 The Hacker Ethic ............................................................................. 99
    3.8 Hacking and Crime .......................................................................... 101
    3.9 Threats to Hackers ........................................................................... 105
    3.9.1 The EFF Report Unintended Consequences ........................ 105
    3.9.2 Some Signi fi cant Recent Legal Cases:
    Cease-and-Desist Actions .................................................... 106
    3.10 Hacking Electronic Voting Machines
    for the Purpose of Transparency ...................................................... 117
    References ................................................................................................... 122
    4 Digital Resistance, Digital Liberties and Human Rights
    ....................... 125
    4.1 Internet and Human Rights .............................................................. 125
    4.2 Internet and the
    Universal Declaration of Human Rights
    ............... 130
    4.3 The Council of Europe and the Human Rights Guidelines
    for Internet Service Providers: The Role of ISPs
    in Human Rights Environments and Protection ............................... 133
    4.4 The WSIS Declaration of Principles ................................................ 134
    4.5 The 2011 United Nations Report on the Promotion
    and Protection of the Right to Freedom of Opinion
    and Expression ................................................................................. 137
    4.6 A Charter of Human Rights and Principles for the Internet ............ 144
    Contents
    vii
    4.7 The “Bill of Rights” Projects ........................................................... 152
    4.7.1 The Internet Bill of Rights Drafted
    within the IGF Works ........................................................... 152
    4.7.2 The Internet Rights and Principles Dynamic
    Coalition Bill of Rights ........................................................ 154
    4.7.3 A Bill of Rights in Cyberspace ............................................ 155
    4.7.4 The EFF Bill of Privacy Rights
    for
    Social Network Users
    ..................................................... 156
    4.8 A Human Rights Approach to the Mobile Internet ............................ 157
    4.9 The Relationship Between Human Rights and Technology
    Sales to Oppressive Regimes ............................................................. 159
    References ................................................................................................... 159
    5 The Use of Liberation Technology
    ........................................................... 161
    5.1 Technical Resistance Tactics .............................................................. 161
    5.2 Surveillance Self-Defense or Self-Defense Against
    Surveillance and Monitoring .............................................................. 167
    5.3 A Recent Circumvention Tool Usage Report .................................... 169
    5.4 Tools and Guides ................................................................................ 171
    5.4.1 Leaping Over the Firewall: A Review of Censorship
    Circumvention Tools by
    Freedom House
    ............................. 171
    5.4.2 Ten Fundamental Aspects of a Typical Liberation
    Technology Tool .................................................................. 176
    5.4.3 An Interesting (Comparative) Article
    on Real Anonimity of VPN Systems Users ......................... 180
    References ................................................................................................... 184
    6 Digital Activism, Internet Control, Transparency,
    Censorship, Surveillance and Human Rights:
    An International Perspective
    ................................................................... 187
    6.1 An Introductory Overview ................................................................. 187
    6.1.1 The Global OpenNet Initiative Analysis .............................. 187
    6.1.2 Techniques and Tools Commonly Used to Censor .............. 201
    6.2 An Analysis of Several Countries with Critical
    Human Rights Issues .......................................................................... 203
    6.2.1 Burma: Internet and Human Rights in a Particular
    Technological, Political and Legal Framework ................... 203
    6.2.2 Cuba: Internet Control, User Restrictions, Legal
    and Regulatory Frameworks, Blogosphere,
    Digital Dissidents and Civil Society .................................... 214
    6.2.3 South Korea: Digital Resistance Issues ............................... 227
    6.2.4 Saudi Arabia: The Digital Liberties Landscape ................... 230
    6.2.5 Syria: Digital Liberties Issues .............................................. 233
    6.2.6 Iran: Internet and Digital Liberties Issues ............................ 239
    6.2.7 China: The Internet and Types and Levels
    of Chinese Internet Censorship ............................................ 247
    Contents

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