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Alleged source: Aaron Swartz

Discussion in 'Freedom of Expression' started by Anonymous, Jan 14, 2013.

  1. Anonymous Member

    Continued
    A Guide to the End of the World

    [IMG]
  2. Anonymous Member

    Swartz-00040.pdf Aaron Swartz: Oxford Dictionary of Slang January 20, 2013 (17.5MB)

    The Oxford Dictionary of
    Slang
    JOHN AYTO
    16. Coercion
    Coercion, pressurizing

    squeeze play (1916) Mainly US; from earlier
    baseball sense, tactic involving bunting or
    hitting the ball softly so that the runner at
    third base can reach home • D. Wecter: You
    perhaps mentioned the fact that Hitler was putting the squeeze
    play on Hindenburg a few years later. (1944)

    heat (1928) Orig US • Listener. The moment seemed
    opportune to 'turn the heat' on Turkey. (1957)

    hardball (1973) US; applied to uncompromising
    and especially intimidatory methods, especially
    in politics; especially in the phrase play hardball;
    from earlier sense, baseball (as opposed to
    Softball) • Fortune: If anyone wants to play hardball, Cub
    can operate in the 5% to 6% range and still be profitable,
    because its costs are so lean.
  3. Anonymous Member

    Please go liberate a public domain document and leave a wish or a thought in Aaron’s memory.
    http://aaronsw.archiveteam.org/
    Welcome to the Aaron Swartz
    Memorial JSTOR Liberator.


  4. Anonymous Member

  5. Anonymous Member

    Swartz-00052.pdf Aaron Swartz: Concealment and Exposure January 23, 2013 (1.4MB)

    CONCEALMENT
    AND EXPOSURE
    And Other Essays
    Thomas Nagel

    Contents
    Part I. Public and Private
    11 . Concealment and Exposure 3
    12 . The Shredding of Public Privacy 27
    13 . Personal Rights and Public Space 31
    14 . Chastity 53
    15 . Nussbaum on Sexual Injustice 56
    16 . Bertrand Russell: APublic Life 63
    Part II. Right and Wrong
    17 . The Writings of John Rawls 75
    18 . Rawls and Liberalism 87
    19 . Cohen on Inequality 107
    10 . Justice and Nature 113
    11 . Raz on Liberty and Law 134
    12 . Waldron on Law and Politics 141
    13 . Scanlon’s Moral Theory 147
    Part III. Reality
    14 . Rorty’s Pragmatism 157
    15 . The Sleep of Reason 163
    16 . Davidson’s New Cogito 175
    17 . Stroud and the Quest for Reality 187
    18 . The Psychophysical Nexus 194

  6. Anonymous Member

    CONTINUED









    Swartz-00052.pdf Aaron Swartz: Concealment and Exposure January 23, 2013 (1.4MB)
    CONCEALMENT
    AND EXPOSURE
    And Other Essays
    Thomas Nagel
    Reticence is not lying. Aspbergers and sociopaths will have a hard time understanding this essay. They can't tell the difference between reticence and lying since both behaviors involve not acknowledging the truth.
  7. Anonymous Member

    The Shredding of Public Privacy

    Best review of the Clinton scandal EVER.
  8. Anonymous Member

    Unfortunately the book devolves into stuff like this:

  9. Anonymous Member

    Swartz-00053.pdf Aaron Swartz: Technology: A World History January 23, 2013 (3.7MB)
    Technology:
    A World History

    Daniel R. Headrick
    Contents
    Editors’ Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii
    CHAPTER 1 Stone Age Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1
    CHAPTER 2 Hydraulic Civilizations (4000–1500 bce). . . . . . .17
    CHAPTER 3 Iron, Horses, and Empires
    (1500 bce–500 ce) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35
    CHAPTER 4 Postclassical and Medieval Revolutions
    (500–1400) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51
    CHAPTER 5 An Age of Global Interactions (1300–1800) . . . . .71
    CHAPTER 6 The First Industrial Revolution (1750–1869) . . . .91
    CHAPTER 7 The Acceleration of Change (1869–1939) . . . . .111
    CHAPTER 8 Toward a Postindustrial World
    (1939–2007) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .130
    Chronology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
    Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
    Further Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
    Web Sites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
    Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161


    Chronology
    2.5 MILLION YEARS AGO
    Oldest tools, river cobbles, used in Ethiopia
    12,000–10,000 YEARS AGO
    Agriculture develops in the Middle East
    3RD MILLENNIUM BCE
    First bronze tools used in the Middle East
    2ND MILLENNIUM BCE
    Malayo-Polynesians begin settling Pacifi c
    and Indian Oceans
    1700–1300 BCE
    The age of chariot warfare
    CA. 1500 BCE
    Iron smelting in Anatolia
    3RD CENTURY BCE
    Romans and Chinese begin civil engineering
    projects
    1ST TO 8TH CENTURIES
    Stirrup spreads from Afghanistan to East
    Asia and Europe
    1012
    Champa rice introduced to China
    1045
    First movable type developed in China
    13TH–15TH CENTURIES
    Incas build road network
    1327
    Grand Canal links Yellow and Yangzi Rivers
    14TH CENTURY
    Gunpowder and cannon fi rst used in war
    1405–1433
    Zheng He’s treasure fl eets sail to Indian
    Ocean
    1493
    Columbian exchange of plants and animals
    begins
    1498
    Vasco da Gama’s fl eet of four 90-foot-long
    ships reaches India
    1712
    Thomas Newcomen builds fi rst atmospheric
    engine
    1764
    James Hargreaves invents spinning jenny
    1769
    James Watt patents separate condenser
    1829
    Rocket wins a contest and becomes the standard
    for steam locomotive design
    1837
    Charles Wheatstone and William Cooke
    install the fi rst electric telegraph line; Samuel
    F. B. Morse patents his code
    1838
    Steamships cross the Atlantic Ocean
    1866
    First functioning submarine telegraph cable
    begins operation across the Atlantic
    1876
    Alexander Graham Bell patents the
    telephone
    1878 –1879
    Thomas Edison and Joseph Swan invent incandescent
    electric light
    1901
    Guglielmo Marconi sends wireless signal
    across the Atlantic Ocean
    1903
    Wilbur and Orville Wright fl y an airplane
    1908
    Henry Ford introduces the Model T
    150 Chronology
    1939–1945
    World War II: fi rst atom bombs, ballistic
    missiles, antibiotics, and computers
    1957
    USSR launches Sputnik , the fi rst artifi cial
    satellite
    1989
    Tim Berners-Lee creates the Internet
    1997
    Dolly the cloned sheep is born
  10. Anonymous Member

    ^^^
    Web Sites

    The Cave of Lascaux
    www.culture.gouv.fr/culture/arcnat/lascaux/en/
    Run by the French government’s Ministry
    of Culture, this site offers an account of the
    prehistoric art at Lascaux, including its development,
    discovery, excavation, eventual
    closing, a virtual tour of the cave network,
    and links to similar archaeological sites.

    Computer History Museum
    www.computerhistory.org/exhibits/
    This Silicon Valley–based museum’s site
    offers a timeline of computer history and
    online exhibits on the Babbage engine,
    computer chess, microprocessors, and a
    history of the Internet.

    History of Agriculture
    www.adbio.com/science/agri-history.htm
    Narrative of the development of global
    agriculture from prehistoric times to the
    present. Contains a section specifi cally on
    agriculture and government price controls
    in the United States.

    Museum of the History of Science, University
    of Oxford
    www.mhs.ox.ac.uk/exhibits
    Online exhibits from Oxford University’s
    collection include “Science in Islam,” a
    history of the drug trade, the world’s largest
    collection of astrolabes, and “Wireless
    World: Marconi and the Making of Radio.”

    Pyramids: The Inside Story
    www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/pyramid/
    Part of the Nova television series’ Online
    Adventure sites, this page offers a history
    of ancient Egypt, interviews with archaeologists,
    and 360-degree views of the pyramids
    and their surroundings.

    Railroad Historical
    www.rrhistorical.com
    A collection of links to railroad historical
    and technical societies, museums, histories,
    and models
    .
    The Science Museum, London
    www.sciencemuseum.org.uk/onlinestuff/
    subjects/engineering.aspx
    Maintained by Britain’s major science
    museum, this site offers illustrated slide
    shows about historical topics such as the
    rise of the factory system, the construction
    of the British railway network, and the use
    of science in warfare.

    Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum
    www.nasm.si.edu/research/
    From the premier American museum on
    the subject, this site contains a database of
    artifacts in the Smithsonian collection, a
    collection of short biographies of women
    in aviation and space history, and an online
    image collection of African American
    pioneer aviators.

    Water-Raising Machines
    www.ummah.net/history/scholars/water
    In the educational section of a news and
    religion site for the Muslim community,
    this page details the history of Arabic irrigation
    devices.[/quote]
    • Like Like x 1
  11. cafanon Member

    This thread is exhibit A to why an OA society would be nothing short of epic. I am having such a knowledge-boner right now.
    • Agree Agree x 1
  12. Anonymous Member

    Some years ago I heard some strory that humans (and the whole Universe) was built of 0s and 1s.

    I don't mind you having that faith. - Just, pleeeease, don't make me and the rest of the world believe that "it's the truth!" - I 've had enough of such "truths"
  13. Anonymous Member

    • Like Like x 1
  14. Anonymous Member

    http://cryptome.org/2013/01/aaron-swartz/019829350X.pdf

    Contents
    1. Introduction 1
    2. Universalism 25
    3. Civil and Political Justice 63
    4. Distributive Justice 102
    5. Political Structures 148
    6. Just War 189
    7. Humanitarian Intervention 226
    8. Conclusion 263
    References 282 Index 309
    • Like Like x 1
  15. Anonymous Member

  16. Anonymous Member

    Humanitarian Intervention
    The voyager reflected: It’s always a serious business to intervene decisively in other people’s affairs. He was neither a citizen of the penal colony nor a citizen of the state to which it belonged. If he wished to condemn this execution, or even to prevent it, they could say to him: You are a stranger, hold your peace. To that he could make no answer, but simply add that in this instance he was a mystery to himself, for he was voyaging as an observer only, and by no means with any intention of changing other people’s judicial systems. But here the circumstances were indeed extremely tempting. The injustice of the procedure and the inhumanity of the execution were beyond all doubt. No one could presume any kind of self-interest on the voyager’s part, for the condemned man was unknown to him, was no fellow countryman, and by no means a person who inspired sympathy.
    Franz Kafka, In The Penal Colony (1992 [1919]: 138)
    What does this non-intervention principle in real fact now mean? It means precisely this—Intervention on the wrong side; Intervention by all who choose, and are strong enough, to put down free movements of peoples against cor- rupt governments. It means co-operation of despots against peoples, but no co-operation of peoples against despots.
    Guiseppe Mazzini ‘Non-Intervention’ in Life and Writings of Joseph Mazzini.
    (Smith, Elder (1870: vol. vi, pp.305–6) as quoted in Wight (1966b: 114))
  17. Anonymous Member

    Syria, anyone?
  18. Anonymous Member

  19. Anonymous Member

    http://cryptome.org/2013/01/aaron-swartz/019928220X.pdf



    *cough

  20. Anonymous Member

    *sputter

  21. Anonymous Member

    http://cryptome.org/2013/01/aaron-swartz/019957278X.pdf
    Vital Democracy
    A Theory of Democracy in Action
    Frank Hendriks Translated by R. Stuve
    Contents
    List of Figures vii List of Boxes ix Preface xi Acknowledgements xv
    Opening Debate 1
    Part I. Concepts 15
    1. Plural Democracy 17
    2. Layered Democracy 31
    Part II. Practices 47
    3. Pendulum Democracy 49
    4. Consensus Democracy 66
    5. Voter Democracy 8
    6. Participatory Democracy 107
    Part III. Lessons 133
    7. Mixing Democracy 135
    8. Reforming Democracy 157
    Closing Debate 178
    Notes 189 Bibliography 219
  22. Anonymous Member

    Conclusion
    The strengths and weaknesses inherent in voter democracy – related to its core qualities and its greatest pitfalls, discussed in this chapter – are listed in Figure 5.2.
    Strengths
    Private initiative Voluntary association
    Client-oriented government Result-oriented government Vibrant civic culture
    Trust in the individual Scope for multiformity Equality in liberty Business-like efficiency
    Weaknesses
    Public recklessness Tragedy of the commons
    Weathervane politics
    Expectation management
    Tending towards consumerism Distrust of the collective
    Danger of anomie, disengagement Survival of the strongest Instrumental coldness
    Figure 5.2 Voter democracy: strengths and weaknesses
  23. Anonymous Member

    Poor Da5id
    I wondered where he went.
  24. Anonymous Member

  25. Anonymous Member

    Swartz-00054.pdf Aaron Swartz: Uninhibited Robust Wide-Open Press January 23, 2013 (
    Uninhibited, Robust,
    and Wide-Open

    a free press for
    a new century
    Lee C. Bollinger

    2010

    Contents
    Acknowledgments
    xi
    chapter one
    Uninhibited, Robust, and Wide-Open
    1
    chapter two
    It Is an Experiment
    44
    chapter three
    Regardless of Frontiers
    68
    chapter four
    The Touchstone
    107
    [ x
    contents
    Epilogue
    162
    Notes
    164
    Index
    199
  26. Anonymous Member

  27. Anonymous Member

  28. Anonymous Member

    Swartz-00060.pdf Aaron Swartz: Ethics of Killing January 23, 2013 (1.9MB)
    There are four distinct categories into which we may sort most or all instances of
    killing for which there may be a reasonable justification. Perhaps the most contentious
    category consists of cases in which killing would simply promote the greater
    good—for example, a case in which killing one person would prevent the killing, or
    the deaths, of a much greater number of people. Most people who believe that killing
    can on occasion be permissible for this sort of reason also believe that, in at least
    most of these instances, certain restrictions on agency have to be satisfied—for example,
    that the killing must be a merely foreseen side effect rather than an intended
    means of achieving the greater good. Although it is important, I will not be concerned
    with this category of possibly justifiable killings.
    The second category consists of cases in which an individual has done something
    that has lowered the moral barriers to harming him, or compromised his status as inviolable,
    or made him liable to action that might result in his death. Cases in which
    killing might be thought to be justified for this sort of reason include killing in selfdefense,
    killing in war, and killing as a mode of punishment. This range of cases will
    be the topic of another book, now in progress, that will be a companion volume to
    this one. This book, subtitled Problems at the Margins of Life, may thus be regarded
    as the first volume of a two-volume work on The Ethics of Killing, of which the second
    volume will be the projected book on self-defense, war, and capital punishment.
    The third category of possibly permissible killing consists of cases in which the
    metaphysical or moral status of the individual killed is uncertain or controversial.
    Among those beings whose nature arguably entails a moral status inferior to our own
    are animals, human embryos and fetuses, newborn infants, anencephalic infants,
    congenitally severely retarded human beings, human beings who have suffered severe
    brain damage or dementia, and human beings who have become irreversibly
    comatose. These are all beings that are in one way or another “at the margins.” There
    are pressing moral questions about the permissibility, in certain circumstances, of
    killing individuals of these sorts, or of allowing them to die. Among the practices
    (whether actual or as yet hypothetical) that raise these questions are meat eating, animal
    experimentation, abortion, infanticide, embryo research, the use of living anencephalic
    infants as organ donors, the termination of life-support for the irreversibly
    comatose, perhaps in order to obtain their organs for t be killed or
    helped to die. The practical issues that arise under this heading are ransplantation, and the withdrawal
    of life-support for demented or incompetent patients in compliance with an
    earlier advance directive. I will address some, though not all, of these problems in
    this book, along with certain related issues, such as the morality of inflicting prenatal
    injury.1
    The fourth and final category comprises cases in which death would not be a
    harm to an individual but instead a benefit. In many such cases, the individual for
    whom death would be a benefit also desires to die and may request tosuicide, assisted
    suicide, and euthanasia. Although my main focus in this book will be on the marginal
    cases, I will also discuss certain dimensions of the problems raised by the cases in
    this fourth category.
  29. Anonymous Member

    Swartz-00060.pdf Aaron Swartz: Ethics of Killing January 23, 2013 (1.9MB)
    CONTENTS
    1. IDENTITY 3
    1. Preliminaries 3
    2. The Soul 7
    2.1. Hylomorphism 7
    2.2. The Cartesian Soul 14
    2.3. Divided Consciousness 19

    3. Are We Human Organisms? 24
    3.1. When Does a Human Organism Begin to Exist? 24
    3.2. Organisms, Embryos, and Corpses 29
    3.3. Brain Transplantation 31
    3.4. Dicephalus 35

    4. The Psychological Account 39
    4.1. Identity and Egoistic Concern 39
    4.2. Beginning to Exist and Ceasing to Exist 43
    4.3. “Pre-persons” and “Post-persons” 46
    4.4. Revisions and a Note on Method 48
    4.5. Replication and Egoistic Concern 55
    4.6. Psychological Connectedness and Continuity 59

    5. The Embodied Mind Account 66
    5.1. The Embodied Mind Account of Identity 66
    5.2. The Basis of Egoistic Concern 69
    5.3. Possible Divergences Between Identity and Egoistic Concern 82
    5.4. The Individuation of Minds 86
    5.5. Mind, Brain, and Organism 88

    2. DEATH 95
    1. Preliminaries 95
    2. The Problem of Comparison 98
    2.1. Immortality 98
    2.2. The Token Comparison 103

    3. The Metaphysical Problem 107
    3.1. A Plurality of Comparisons 107
    3.2. Criteria for Determining the Appropriate Comparison 112

    4. The Problem of Overdetermination 117
    4.1. When Death Would Have Occurred Soon From a Different Cause 117
    4.2. The Inheritance Strategy and the Problem of the Terminus 120
    4.3. Overall Losses in Dying 127
    4.4. The Previous Gain Account 136
    4.5. Discounting Misfortunes for Previous Gains 140

    5. Overall Lifelong Fortune 145
    5.1. The Standard for Assessing Fortune 145
    5.2. A Hierarchy of Being? 159
    5.3. The Overall Fortune of Those Who Die in Infancy 162

    6. The Deaths of Fetuses and Infants 165
    6.1. The Time-Relative Interest Account 165
    6.2. Narrative Unity, Retroactive Effects, Desert, and Desire 174

    7. A Paradox 185

    3. KILLING 189
    1. The Wrongness of Killing and the Badness of Death 189
    1.1. Two Accounts 189
    1.2. The Killing of Animals 194

    2. Animals and Severely Cognitively Impaired Human Beings 203
    2.1. The Options 203
    2.2. Membership in the Human Species 209
    2.3. Comembership in a Species as a Special Relation 217
    2.4. Convergent Assimilation 228

    3. Equality and Respect 232
    3.1. The Time-Relative Interest Account 232
    3.2. The Requirement of Respect 240
    3.3. The Basis of the Worth of Persons 251

    4. BEGINNINGS 267

    1. Early Abortion 267
    2. Late Abortion 269
    3. Prenatal Harm 280
    4. Is a Later Abortion Worse? 288
    5. Time-Relative Interests and Adaptation 294

    6. Potential 302
    6.1. Potential and Identity 302
    6.2. Potential as a Basis for Moral Status 308
    6.3. Potential, Cognitive Impairment, and Animals 316

    7. The Sanctity of Human Life 329

    8. Infanticide 338
    8.1. Abortion and Infanticide 338
    8.2. Are Infants “Replaceable?” 345

    9. Abortion as the Denial of Life-Support 362
    9.1. The Argument 362
    9.2. Responsibility for the Fetus’s Need for Aid 364
    9.3. Parental Responsibility 373
    9.4. Killing and Letting Die 378
    9.5. The Dependent Child Case 392

    10. Abortion and Self-Defense 398
    10.1. Self-Defense Against a Nonresponsible Threat 398
    10.2. Proportionality, Third-party Intervention, and Forfeiture 411
    10.3. The Decisive Asymmetry 418

    xii contents
    5. ENDINGS 423
    1. When Do We Die, or Cease to Exist? 423
    1.1. Two Concepts of Death 423
    1.2. Brain Death 426
    1.3. Persistent Vegetative State and Deep Coma 443
    1.4. Anencephalic Infants 450
    2. Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide 455
    2.1. From Suicide to Euthanasia 455
    2.2. The Sanctity of Life, Again 464
    2.3. Respect for the Worth of Persons 473
    2.4. Nonvoluntary Euthanasia 485
    3. The Withering Away of the Self 493
    3.1. The Metaphysics of Progressive Dementia 493
    3.2. The Moral Authority of Advance Directives 496
    NOTES 505
    REFERENCES 521
    INDEX OF CASES 531
    GENERAL INDEX 533
  30. Anonymous Member

    Swartz-00060.pdf Aaron Swartz: Ethics of Killing January 23, 2013 (1.9MB)


    I tried excerpting more. The arguments are complex and wordy. He discusses animal rights, abortion, euthanasia -both voluntary and involuntary-, killing in self defense and suicide.
  31. Anonymous Member

    Swartz-00061.pdf Aaron Swartz: Charles Babbage Perfection Engines January 23, 2013 (799KB)

    Charles Babbage and the
    Engines of Perfection
    Bruce Collier
    James MacLachlan
    Oxford
    Contents
    Chapter 1: The Making of a Mathematician . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8
    Chapter 2: In Scientific Circles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
    Sidebar: Logarithms Explained . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32
    Chapter 3: Inventing the Difference Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35
    Sidebar: Differences in Sequences of Numbers . . . . . . . .39
    Sidebar: Early Mechanical Calculators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44
    Chapter 4: Reform Is in the Air . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49
    Sidebar: The Operation of the Jacquard Loom . . . . . . . . .66
    Chapter 5: Inventing the Analytic Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .73
    Chapter 6: Passages in a Philosopher’s Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .92
    Chapter 7: After Babbage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .104
    Museums and Web Sites Related to Charles Babbage . . . .112
    Chronology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
  32. Anonymous Member

    CONT
    Charles Babbage and the
    Engines of Perfection
    Chronology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .115
    Further Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .119
    Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .121

    111
  33. Anonymous Member

    Charles Babbage and the
    Engines of Perfection

    M U S E U M S
    A N D
    W E B S I T E S R E L AT E D TO
    C H A R L E S B A B B A G E


    American Computer Museum
    234 East Babcock Street
    Bozeman, MT 59715
    Tel: 406-587-7545
    http://www.compustory.com
    The British Library
    96 Euston Road
    London NW1 2DB
    United Kingdom
    Tel.: 44-171-412-7332
    http://www.bl.uk
    Computer Museum of America
    Coleman College
    7380 Parkway Drive
    La Mesa, CA 91942
    Tel.: 619-465-8226
    http://www.computer-museum.org
    The Computer Museum
    300 Congress Street
    Boston, MA 02210
    Tel.: 617-426-2800
    Talking Computer: 617-423-6758
    http://www.tcm.org
    Deutsches Museum
    Museumsinsel 1
    D-80538 München
    Germany
    Tel: 49-89-2179-1
    Fax: 49-89-2179-324
    http://www.deutsches-museum.de
    National Museum of American
    History
    The Smithsonian Institution
    14th Street and Constitution Ave., N.W.
    Washington, DC 20560
    Tel.: 202-357-2700 (voice)
    or 202-357-1729 (TTY)
    Fax: 202-633-9338
    http://www.si.edu
    http://www.si.edu/organiza/museums/nmah
    Science Museum, London
    National Museum of Science and Industry
    Exhibition Road
    South Kensington
    London SW7 2DD
    United Kingdom
    Recorded message: 44-171-938-8111
    General Inquiries: 44-171-938-8008/8080
    Disabled Persons Inquiry Line:
    44-171-938-9788
    http://www.nmsi.ac.uk
  34. Anonymous Member

  35. Anonymous Member

    C H R O N O L O G Y
    1791
    Charles Babbage born, south London, December 26
    1810–14
    Attends Trinity College, Cambridge
    1812–14
    Member of the Analytical Society at Cambridge, which
    he helps found
    1814
    Marries Georgiana Whitmore in July
    1815
    First child, Benjamin Herschel Babbage, born
    1815
    Becomes a member of the Royal Society
    1815–16
    Publishes an essay on calculus in Philosophical Transactions of
    the Royal Society
    1816
    Presents series of lectures on astronomy at the Royal
    Institution in London
    1819
    Travels to Paris to visit French scientists; gets inspiration
    for Difference Engine from Baron Gaspard de Prony’s use
    of division of labor for calculating tables
    1820
    Helps found the Astronomical Society of London
    1822
    Announces invention of Difference Engine to
    Astronomical Society in June
    1823
    Recognized by the Royal Society for his Difference
    Engine
    1824
    Is awarded the Astronomical Society’s first gold medal
    1826
    Publishes A Comparative View of the Various Institutions for
    the Assurance of Lives
    1826
    Publishes description of his mechanical notation in
    Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society
    1827
    Father Benjamin, son Charles Jr., wife Georgiana, and a
    newborn son die
    1827
    Consults with Isambard Kingdom Brunel, who is overseeing
    his father’s tunnel under the Thames River, on railroad
    design
    1827
    Begins scientific tour of Europe with mechanic Richard
    Wright
    1829–39
    Lucasian professor of mathematics at Cambridge University
    1830
    Publishes Reflections on the Decline of Science in England,
    and on Some of its Causes
    1831–39
    Trustee of the British Association for the Advancement of
    Science
    1832
    Construction work on the Difference Engine halts
  36. Anonymous Member

    1832
    Publishes On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures
    1834
    Helps found the Statistical Society of London
    1834
    Daughter Georgiana dies
    1836
    First conceives of using punched cards to provide instructions
    and data to calculating machine—this marks transition
    from Difference Engine to Analytical Engine
    1837
    Writes “Of the Mathematical Powers of the Calculating
    Engine”
    1837
    Publishes Ninth Bridgewater Treatise
    1843
    Babbage and Ada Lovelace publish translation of
    Menabrea’s description of the Analytical Engine
    1844
    Babbage’s mother Betty dies
    1851
    The Great Exhibition, England’s first exhibition of industrial
    products, is held; Babbage conceives of way to control
    the timing of the emission of light from lighthouses
    and harbor markers
    1864
    Publishes Passages from the Life of a Philosopher
    1871
    Charles Babbage dies on October 18
  37. Anonymous Member

    F U R T H E R
    R E A D I N G
    Asprey,William, ed. Computing before Computers. Des Moines:
    Iowa State University Press, 1990.

    Atherton,W. A. From Compass to Computer, A History of Electrical
    and Electronics Engineering. San Francisco, Calif.: San Francisco
    Press, 1984.

    Babbage, Charles. Passages from the Life of a Philosopher. New Brunswick,
    N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1994.

    Babbage, Henry Prevost. Babbage’s Calculating Engines: A Collection
    of Papers. Los Angeles:Tomash, 1982.

    Bell,Walter Lyle. Charles Babbage, Philosopher, Reformer, Inventor:A
    History of His Contributions to Science. Doctoral dissertation,
    Oregon State University.Ann Arbor: University of Michigan
    Microfilms, 1975.

    Buxton, H.W. Memoir of the Life and Labours of the Late Charles
    Babbage Esq., F.R.S. (Anthony Hyman, ed.) Cambridge, Mass.:
    MIT Press, 1988.

    Campbell-Kelly, Martin, ed. The Works of Charles Babbage. 11 vols.
    London: Pickering, 1989.

    Cardwell, D. S. L. Turning Points in Western Technology. New York:
    Science History Publications, 1972.

    Charles Babbage and His Calculating Engines. London: Science
    Museum, 1991.

    Collier, Bruce. The Little Engines That Could’ve: The Calculating
    Machines of Charles Babbage. New York: Garland, 1991.

    Dubbey, J. M. The Mathematical Work of Charles Babbage.
    Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1978.

    Hyman, Anthony. Charles Babbage: Pioneer of the Computer.
    Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1982.

    Hyman, Anthony, ed. Memoirs of the Life and Labours of the Late
    Charles Babbage, Esq. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1988.

    Hyman, Anthony, ed. Science and Reform: Selected Works of Charles
    Babbage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988.
  38. Anonymous Member

    Charles Babbage and the
    Engines of Perfection

    F U R T H E R
    R E A D I N G

    Lindgren, Michael. Glory and Failure:Th
    e Difference Engines of
    Johann Müller, Charles Babbage and Georg and Edvard Scheutz.
    (Craig G. McKay, trans.) Cambridge: MIT Press, 1990.

    MacLachlan, James. Children of Prometheus: A History of Science and
    Technology. Toronto:Wall & Emerson, 1990
    .
    Moore, Doris Langley. Ada, Countess of Lovelace: Byron’s Legitimate
    Daughter. London: John Murray, 1977.

    Morrison, Philip, and Emily Morrison, eds. Charles Babbage: On the
    Principles and Development of the Calculator and Other Seminal
    Writings. New York: Dover, 1961.

    Moseley, Maboth. Irascible Genius:A Life of Charles Babbage, Inventor.
    London: Hutchinson & Co., 1964.

    Stein, Dorothy. Ada: A Life and a Legacy. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT
    Press, 1985.

    Swade, Doron. Charles Babbage and His Calculating Engines. London:
    Science Museum, 1991.

    Zientara, Marguerite. History of Computing: A Biographical Portrait of
    the Visionaries Who Shaped the Destiny of the Computer Industry.
    Framingham, Mass.: CW Communications, 1981.

    120
  39. Quick Silver Member

    Bravo Zulu! Outstanding! Ahhhh where were you when I was writing my Thesis many many moons ago :)
    • Like Like x 1
  40. Anonymous Member

    It is important to note that these files were alleged, by others, to have been downloaded by Aaron Swartz. I have no way of knowing where they came from. I found them on the internet and they were available on several sites. I consider them open source documents.
    • Like Like x 1

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